CAMEROON: AN ANATOMY OF DISGRACE, by Kifon Emile, M.A.

“Revolution is always verbose.”

Leon Trotsky

The Stockholm Syndrome – where the victim is led to sympathize with his captor, is a reality that appears to be more common than imagined. A syndrome, clinically, is a pathos where presumably the gavel of a political analyst should be irrelevant. But the current tensions in Cameroon unveil not just a social and political unrest, but also a psychological and psychiatric malaise at a national scale, where the appropriate diagnostic operator becomes a clinical practitioner vested to restore the once peaceful society into normality and sanity whose soul has been destroyed through lack of knowledge, love for suffering, passion for disorder, tolerance of mediocrity, and confusion.

In September 2016, the English-speaking part of Cameroon which constitutes about 20% of the total population expressed dissatisfaction with the way the central administration [Yaoundé] had been conducting changes in the region, from educational system, execution of the law to investment in infrastructure. This was expressed through protests and strike – like what should be expected in a young democracy where the listening faculty of leaders is either nonexistent or incapacitated.

Historically, the origin of this discontentment is as old as the days of independence in1960, when the British colonial territory was made a trustee territory of the United Nations. In 1961, during a plebiscite on 11th February 1961 on whether to join Nigeria or Cameroon, the English Cameroon opted to join the Republic of Cameroon, as a federal State, with its prime Minister John Njuh Foncha, in opposition to Nigerian which they deemed were demeaning, aggressive and violent. Northern Cameroon become part of Nigeria on 1st June, 1961 while southern Cameroon joined French Cameroon on October 1st of the same year.

 In 1991, the constitution was modified into a unified State. It stripped the English part from any control of its resources, government, and administration. It is believed that highly centralized governments in Africa are patterned on the French model to obey religiously  their European metropole – France. In line with this, the discovery of the Bakassi peninsula oil rich zone in early 80s – which caused years of tension between Cameroon and Nigeria, had been another reason why the Cameroon government, admittedly guided by France, pushed to a unitary State in order to keep firm control of the oil rich region: as they have always done with African resources in colonies where they have any influence.

 Culturally, the English-speaking region practices the common-law contrary to the region which practices French civil law. In a centralized administration marked by flagrant discrimination and nepotism, judges are appointed from the French zone who have little or no knowledge of the common law.  Their execution of the law contradicts the legal practice of the region and consequently puts lawyers in disarray. Educationally, Southern Cameroon cherishes its English heritage: its authors and academic approaches are contrary to the French Cameroon whose francocentric model had been fast declining over the years. And economically, the region suffers from complete neglect given it has no industrial infrastructure, one public university, Buea in 1992, recently Bamenda in 2012, and limited access to opportunities which are all concentrated in the capital, Yaoundé.

Besides the fact that Cameroon is a perfect example of a mismanaged country ranking 146/176, on a score of 26/100 according to Transparency International. It is fueled by tribalism, dictatorship, and systemic unequal distribution of resources in general. The level of such injustice varies from one region to another and of course, interpreted from different perspectives, is all caused by one problem – incompetent governance. In the case of Southern Cameroon, which is already marginalized and poorly constructed as all other parts of the nation, it equally suffers from cultural, legal, and educational castration from the Cameroon government. That is why the strike, generally misunderstood by Cameroonians of the East who are equally poor and discriminated against, has failed to gain any sympathy from those of that region.

 A strike must not be rational in nature but its control should be. The more rational a strike is, the less passionate the strike; not because it is devoid of passion but because rationality is predisposed to compromise and thus outweighs the passionate demand for absolute parity.

Starting with the lawyers who couldn’t take it anymore, October 2016, the teachers whose discontent had accelerated over the decades followed and combined with that of the public. The boycott of schools and administrative as well as business activities was operationalized as part of a common strategy. The solidarity of the citizens of this region met with lawyers and teachers in defense of common sense and commonwealth. They were challenged with unbridled violence or repression from the government. Indeed, the state’s main tool of dialogue so characteristic of a declining dictatorship and a threatened civil service workforce was the use of state police power.

Government controls all aspects of the media. Television. Radio. Newspapers. Censorship prohibits any media that criticizes the government. People are not allowed to protest and any that do are terrorized by secret police. People that oppose the government are arrested and sent to labor camps or killed.

RESPONSE OF THE POLITICAL PHYLUM

The first reaction of the government was to send military personnel whose training should be put to question with regards to the way they treated their fellow citizens. In about 7 months, 6 people have been killed and not less than 800 detained without even reasonable suspicion being cited to justify their detention. And to add insult to injury, none of them were granted due process of law.

A few days into the strike, the military and BIR ‘Battalion d’Intervention Rapide or Rapid Intervention Squad’ were sent to the region. The first military known for its brutality and the latter known for its cruelty though both had one thing in common, ruthlessness. Their actions were characterized by complete suspension of constitutional rights. The BIR is known to have a more robust training. It stands as a paramilitary team and operates under direct control from of the presidency. In fact, it was created in 2001 as a special Unit to protect the president after a failed coup d’Etat on 7th April 1984.

Using the military as a first response mechanism only confirms what the revered political scientist, Mathias Eric Owana had described. He described the state as a military regime disguised in civilian clothing. Intimidation, negligence and cruelty against its own citizens are its primary characteristics. The rational and decision making element of the state and the police and gendarmeries have assumed indistinguishable roles. And over time what always happens is that the decision-making element of the state becomes a decaying institutional relic and the scares which crisscross the body of our nation. Now the rule of law officiates its own requiem. 

Political structures are known to dialectically oscillate between opposing class struggle. More precisely, Cameroon’s rulers constitute a phylum, i.e., a category above class whose are privileged, corrupt, cruel, deaf, blind, and un-empathetic and who stand firm on all institutional bodies to even better cripple the nation.

The phylum, constituted by its pontiff, Paul Biya and his stooges like Issa Tchiroma, communications minister, and Jacques Fame Ndongo, education minister, participate in creating the upper political class and the lower class. They are an inaccessible and unavailable in their opaque halls; an ironic contradiction to the nation that they are presumed to serve but only flush the air with meaningless pantomime.

Joseph Wirba, a parliamentarian from southern Cameroon, has expressed his concern to Jacques Fame Ndongo on the sibject.  His best response was: “What are you guys going to do?”  Issa Tchiroma, a former opposition leader turned apologist for the president after recapturing the post of communication minister said: “There is no place for federation or independence.” While Paul Atanga Nji, minister for special duties at the presidency had declared: “There is no systemic discrimination against Anglophones”.

Even though the president had been silent, governing through silence as he has always done in the past three decades, he had offered a pathetic 2 million dollars to private and confessional schools in the regions. Little hugs never work after many years of domestic violence. He shut down the internet on January-April 2017; he imprisoned lawyers like  Barista Fon, Dr. Nkongho Felix Falla Agbor (esq) and Dr. Fontem Neba, while many others fled for their lives. Then he failed a whole generation of youth when he mandated students to sit for the GCE test knowing that they had not attended classes during that school year.  All constitute the actions of a trap setter not a leader and benefactor of the people. And with his newly discovered vocabulary of terrorism, he has not failed to charge his own citizens of such crime while neglecting Boko Haram in the North.

A NATIONAL MALAISE: POLITICS OF DISGACE

In a country where poverty is at a 48% level (Human Development Index, 2011). Where a pregnant woman dies laboring in front of a hospital with no assistance. Where a reckless train collapses and kills 55 citizens, 300 injured in 2016 and no one is held accountable. Furthermore, where the president rules ad vitam and at present for 35 years. Where journalists are harassed and killed.  One would expect that if a given group goes on strike in order to request a better management of public affairs, that would sound like the most laudable act of courage to be praised. No, not in Cameroon.

In fact, Cameroonian citizens who accomodate French colonial policies are shocked, surprised and wonder “why do others complain?” As if they were about to say: “Look, this is a beautiful country, fair, loving, just with good leaders who care for your good. Why on earth would you revolt against them?”

Historically, this type of ignorance is not new. When the people of France revolted against king Louise XVI for unbearable living conditions, the queen, Marie Antionette, also known as Madame Deficit, was shocked why the people had to complain to her for bread: “They should eat cake” she answered. A response that led to her beheading in Oct. 16th, 1793. The only difference with France is that the French all knew that they were oppressed and daily mistreated. That is of course except for their queen perhaps for good reasons because she lived in great conditions. But the Cameroonian public suffers in general, yet they claim the same ignorance as that of the aforementioned queen.

With the current surprise of most Cameroonians, it is sad that one must explain why the living conditions are not favorable, why the opportunities are limited and why it is important to preserve the diversity of a country which takes pride in saying it is the miniature of Africa. It is a surprise that ministers as well as citizens all ask the same question: “why are the Anglophones complaining? But we all suffer, right?” Or the misconstrued idea that the main issue is that of language, or again pointing at the prime minister as an Anglophone to be a sign that English speaking citizens are treated well.  Another way of claiming as with the election of Barak Obama that his election proves racism has ended.

No doubt, the Stockholm syndrome seems to take effect here more inherently than one would imagine. After being accustomed to disgrace, dictatorship, perpetual rule, corruption, and nepotism, it has almost become normalized. The call for change or improvement becomes the real threat while those who have destroyed the country gain sympathy, love, compassion and protection from the people they’ve crushed over the years.

Progress within a social context with such a pervasive mindset is not only difficult but also highly unlikely. Maybe Cameroonians have not suffered enough to know that it is time to rise and challenge the status quo against all odds.

TRIBALISM AND RACISM: TWO FACES OF THE SAME EVIL, by Kifon Emile, M.A.

cutting-tribalism

Social Identity is a conceptual framework designed to create meaning, distinction and with the goal of strengthening the sense of belonging while promoting – mutual – growth. In this case, a tribe, a race or a nation gives a generic identity to an individual in which he defines himself.

Identity, it follows, is founded ironically on a simple principle: the identical. That is, he looks like me, thinks like me, has the same origin as me, understands me, can assist me [unconditionally?], he won’t hurt me, he looks familiar and would likely know why I act/think this way or that way without judging etc. What an individual sees in his race/tribe, he sees – most of the time, the opposite in others’. As such, identity becomes a comfort zone, crafted by society [structural] and individuals [psychological] to maintain those agreeable feelings of safety and belonging.

The socio-genesis of race and tribe is built on the same basis of primary emotions which connect a person to other members of the family. Between the structural and the psychological, there is a biological link which connects the two thereby making such bonds not only strong but sometimes – if not most of the times – irrational.

Three concepts come into play when the issue of tribe and race are concerned: culture (structural), (personal) psychological, and (blood) biological.

Culture imposes a set of values upon individuals in a given community. These values include but are not limited to the following: food, drinks, dance, language, dressing, etc. Being born into particular culture or race is not a choice. How an individual integrates those values that are set on him comes from his personal decision. However, because there is a belief that members who share a given identity are connected as a family – blood, the choices made usually turn in favor of sentiments rather than objective reasoning.

The concept of tribe is related to two others which share the same characteristics: clan and ethnic group. The first refers to a subgroup within a given tribe, generally smaller with closer connections while the second refers to an agglomeration of tribes that share common characteristics (language, food, dances etc.) and origin. Any case against tribalism applies to ethnic groupings as well as clans. The understanding of racism and tribalism appears to be at the heart of most of the major crisis that humanity has ever known. According to Niall Ferguson, renowned Harvard history professor, argued in Wars of the World, that the WWI and II were motivated by the expansion of empires and ethnic proclivity. It happened that such ethnic expansion coincided with race boundaries. Another heinous evil known to humanity is slavery which was linked to race.

Unraveling the problems related to tribalism and racism constitute a general approach in understanding what lies at the core of discrimination between groups of people which evidently is the cause of so many injustices and violence.

Social Identity: An Attribute or An Essence?

An attribute means to ascribe from its Latin derivative “ad tribuere” to ascribe. Because ascribe refers to certain characteristics that are assigned to an individual either by himself, society, or law are for the most part external, it constitute a transient phase with regard to its contingent nature and peripheral phase with regard to its superficiality.

Essence, on the contrary, is an intrinsic property that defines something/someone and without which it ceases to be what it is. An essence is also a substance or necessity and without this at thing or someone loses its identity.

James Watson is a Nobel Prize winner in biology for his contribution in the development of DNA and is one among thousands of intellectuals who believe that there is some essence in the issue of race when he stated that he was “inherently gloomy about the prospect of Africa” because “all our social policies are based on the fact that their intelligence is the same as ours—whereas all the testing says not really.” It is a common belief that there is an intrinsic value unequally distributed among races which is the primary cause of poverty and riches, greatness or misery in a given people. But a close elucidation unveils a more intricate reality than public opinion would possibly admit.

If intelligence is an essence designating a value in the genes of individuals whose corollary characteristic is skin color, then it must be concluded that there is no human genus but many human genera. And because these genera differ in their intelligence, concepts of democracy, human rights, and justice they cannot be held to be universal. That leads ultimately to this premise: Universal Declarations of human rights become null. It cannot be expected for humans to practice universal values fundamental to humans when their essence and capacity of grasping these values do not match.

Admittedly, in an enjoyable assertion, it is said that the Kikuyus of Kenya are good business people while the Luo are book people [intelligent, lawyers, doctors etc.]. In Nigeria, the Igbo are associated with business and money, the Yoruba with education while the Hausas are seen as lousy, love power. In Cameroon, the Bamileke are stereotyped with money, northerners with low skilled jobs, Sawa as beautiful but lazy. Almost every tribe has a stereotype in Africa and they play an important role in shaping interactions and defining the patterns of cohabitation of peace or conflict. But it is not uncommon to find out that these are often based on isolated cases, poorly generalized, massively marketed at a discounted rate of coherence and truth since they ignore social trajectories that each group grow through in defining its self-preservation agenda.

For example, the Bamileke are associated with business and money but the richest man in Cameroon is an Anglophone from the north west province, Muslim, Aladji Danpollo [Cf. Jeune Afrique]; the Northerners in Nigeria are linked with power but most of the investments are done in the south [Lagos, Abudja] thereby benefiting most people of the south. The Igbos in Nigeria are mainly associated with business but the most acclaimed African writer who brought Africa to light was Chinua Achebe who is an Igbo. Even when it is believed in Nigeria that Fulani/Hausa are born to rule, the same tribe which constitute about 10% of the Cameroonian population doesn’t have those beliefs.

In fact, tribal stereotypes appear to be at the heart of most of the conflicts that are faced in African nations, breaks the bridge of trust while installing a hardware of misunderstanding and suspicion. But very little is done about it. Generally, it is believed that that is what those people are.

Racism comes with its own stereotypes and most people believe that some races are naturally made to have certain potentials: either intelligent or foolish, hard working or lazy, organized or disorganized, etc.

If the complex relations of tribalism and instinct cannot be conquered, then that of racism still has a long way to go. Such beliefs lead, naturally to the classification of races/tribes into a hierarchy.

Hierarchy? Structural Identity And Symbolic Violence

Each time a tribe/race is considered superior to another, symbolic violence is being normalized. Specific groups are known for attributing to themselves all the good qualities, while conferring to others all the negative ones thereby strengthening their position of feeling superior.

Tribal hierarchy, less discussed and admitted, is an ensuing argument of those who hold social identities as an essence. There is a common expression in Nigeria used by the Funali which corroborates this position: Fulani are “born to rule”, described by  Anyichiet Ochukwu in the Daily Trust as the born to rule syndrome in the Nigerian governing class, which according to him, is at the core of the governance problem in Nigeria. Of the thirteen presidents that have ruled Nigeria, it is no surprise that nine of them are from the greater North including the central belt. Taking into account the fact that Muhammadu Buhari has been president twice, this should actually sum up to ten against three for the southerners. It should be pointed that Nigeria officially become a democratic nation in 1999 under the fourth republic and since many northerners – perhaps due to less interest in education, entered the military, they consolidated their position under the long military dictatorship by taking turns in power. So, born to rule appears to be a forged concept acquired through might rather than right. It was a contingent reality, and does not designate a tribal substance inherent in the Fulani people or the northerners.

In Cameroon, the Douala and Sawa people usually feel superior to other tribes. This explains why most of them never liked to work in the plantations created by the whites in the early 1900s. For this reason, Bamilekes, from the South West migrated to this littoral region to work in these plantations where through careful savings and investments many of them finally became wealthy thereby developing their own superiority complex.

In Rwanda, the Belgians had propagated a myth of tribal/ethnic superiority of the Tutsis because they had a lighter skin color, are tall, had greater social order and were more like Europeans compared to the Hutsi counterparts. Although there had existed a social order which classified the Tutsis as superior because they were of divine origin and the natural elite who brought civilization to Rwanda, the Germans who first colonized the territory never emphasized on it nor enforced it.

From the 1950s, the racial identities – which is actually ethnic, were institutionalized. This led to the progressive subjugation of the Hutsi whose revolt culminated in the 1994 genocide that resulted in close to a million Tutsis deaths thereby reducing the percentage of the group from 24% to 14%: an epic attempt of ethnic cleansing built on the edifice of crafted illusion. The ramification of this war includes the Burundian genocide [1972-1993] and the first [1996-1997] and second [1998-2003] Congo Wars.

What makes a tribe/ethnic group superior? In most cases, it is through the acquisition of things of power like arms, wealth, intelligence, organized systems, and success in all its forms. But also skin color as in the case of Rwanda. Because a lighter skin is believed to be superior, myths are created to conform to such realities in order to consolidate these comfort zones.

These arguments on hierarchy among tribes illustrate that contingent realities always influence the way a group of people see themselves and the way they expect others to see them. Do these differences really matter in the lives of people?

When millions of people are killed with impunity under the pretext of tribe/ethnic group, it becomes evident that even more would lose jobs, suffer corruption, and other unfair treatment because they do not belong to the same tribe/ethnic group as the other person. This explains why intertribal marriages have always been seen with suspicion by most African tribes.

Racial hierarchy remains a credo that has lasted for centuries and holds a privileged place in the subconscious minds of many people. In an – almost – exhaustive account of race/racism and hierarchy, Dr. Steven Nur Ahmed points out in A particular Line of reasoning: How Plato and Aristotle fashioned our concept of race, that it is a “2,400 year old downward spiral in relation to the quality of human reasoning…” Racial hierarchy, based on skin color placed the white race at the top, blacks at the bottom and all the others in the midway.

The consequences of such classifications are far-reaching that even the organization of modern societies find it too complex and nearly impossible to do away with it.

Old Primitive Emotions In A New Rationality: Modern States

It is an old psychological joke that all children believe that their dad is the most handsome, hardworking and greatest man alive. Even when bullied by the a mighty soldier, he rushes to his dad who, most of the time, is as helpless as other people but thanks to his old age has learnt to beg for his survival through tolerance and dialogue – values which would restores the child’s confidence in him.

Family attachments are based on such sentiments and by blood even when the values claimed to be practiced therein may not really be there. This connection outreaches to extended members of the family which finally becomes a clan, a tribe, or an ethnic group. These closed societies hold to their illusion of self and social identity and are almost autonomous in most cases with regards to legislation, territory, and administration. This is the old order which can also be called the primitive order.

The emergence of modern states brought in another reality that would shake tribal logic to its core – citizenry. Being a citizen of a country means you must accept all others not as members of other tribes, clans or ethnic groups but simply because they are citizens. It is a new rationality because tribe must never come before the nation. National identity through respect of the law must outshine traditional attachment.

In practice, this new rationality often carries with it relics of its old self thereby threatening the wellbeing of the State and that of all its citizens. In Cameroon, there are about 250 tribes, in Nigeria about 300 and over 100 tribes in Angola. As a result, most African states are constituted of multiple tribes and government workers are called to relate to everyone as equal without prejudice to origin or tribe. Regrettably, the old enemy reappears in a new form in these institutions. Public administration is used by those to power to further defend the interests of a particular tribe.

In the West, most nations were formed along tribal lines, or almost so. Coupled with a long history of nation building, they’ve learned to live with others’ differences but the biological aspect of race has never disappeared. That is what led to the racial and ethnic tension of the early 1900s which later became the world wars.

There is nothing as self-evident as the equality of man and there is nothing as frustrating as his desire to distinguish/classify himself as a special being within the same species. The Declaration of Independence, 4th of July 1776, made it clear: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” After 168 years, the same formulation appeared in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.” Both texts pioneered by the United States of America, whose constitution upholds racial superiority, perhaps never considered blacks as humans since they were officially segregated till 1963. In fact, they never stopped slavery, segregation, and modern day discrimination.

Racity/Tribality Against Racism/Tribalism: When Nominal Coherence Meets the Frontiers of Practical Unpredictability

In principle, it is only normal for people who share common threads to live together. It is good for a Muslim to be happy to be around other Muslims and for Indians to love Indian restaurants; Bulu people to love cassava and peanut butter; Hausa to love those who look like them and Hispanics to love Hispanic music. It is normal also for whites to love their own people and normal for blacks to love blacks. This is raciality/trability.

While it is normal to like the things from your tribe and the people from your race, it becomes extremely difficult to draw the line where one must stop from conferring undeserved privileges to those who look like us while refusing from others who truly deserve our attention. Here, good judgement and law are jeopardized while emotions are being instrumentalized.

But living within one’s comfort zone and establishing the limits where it becomes a crime seems complex in daily life. When discrimination is committed against a member of another community, it is easy to justify it because they are no emotional attachments involved. On the contrary, there are always laws and public support in favor of the actions of some against others. Such exploitation of circumstances occur especially when a dominant tribe control power (Bulu in Cameroon) or when a given race assumes the rule of autochthony (Whites in the United States of America).

During civil unrests in Cameroon, the military is usually deployed from the Northern Province, who are usually the Hausas and Fulani. And because they have no emotional connection with people from the south, their oppression of any civil unrest is usually cruel and effective. The same strategy is used in the deployment of troops around the country. From an individual perspective, a Nigerian soldier had confessed how she killed rebels in South Sudan without any sympathy but her heart melts when she hears the victim mourn in a language familiar to her.

Does such reactions make sense when we compare the way in which Whites kill Blacks in the USA? Actually, there is usually no compassion because it is the pain is in others.

What the West finds inadmissible about World War I and II is the fact the white man administered to those who looked like them acts which were reserved for others. It only makes sense that the UNO, NATO and related bodies were created after that with the primary reason to prevent war from occurring among these nations. And what about nations in Africa, South America, Middle East and Asia? “They should take care of themselves…”

The Veneration of Illusion Versus Disgust of Reality: Redefining Identity

Social identity, racial or tribal, when put on the crucible of pure reason – objectivity, shreds all frontiers and pulls downs permanently without appeal all curtains behind which all humans hide. The final verdict is that humans are one. But why is this self-evident reality accepted with disgust and often rejected in daily life? The reason is simple: humans venerate illusion, because in it, they find their comfort zone. When such comforts zones don’t suffice others are immediately created: rites, gods, myths, etc. Fear is the god-father of illusions while incertitude is the mother delusion.

The Banso people from the grass field North West region of Cameroon love their tribe, their culture and tradition particularly their food and dance. Fufu and vegetables constitute their staple. But they often forget that Fufu is made of corn which was brought by the whites and replaced the local cereal. The same goes for Kabah, a gown worn by most women in Cameroon including the Banso which they believe is part of their culture. However, these dress styles came in as a reaction of astonished whites who, in front of naked ladies, decided to give them pieces of cloths to wrap around their breasts and down the thighs. It becomes clear that behind every culture is just an illusion which people venerate, a contingent aspect which happened at a given time and possibly will disappear.

Race is just a color, but regrettably happens to play one of the most important roles in peoples’ lives at times more than intelligence and hard work would.

On the one hand people claim everyone is the same, but on other hand each individual wants to remain in his/her own comfort zone.

Breaking barriers: Between Tension and Peace.

Social identity, as mentioned earlier, is an “artificial fortress”, comfort zone, crafted by a people as a means to promote their self-preservation, deter others from their influence – which they assume is mostly negative while integrating – reluctantly the positive ones. As such, these identity barriers become almost rigid over decades thereby becoming very difficult to break or cross. When a people integrate into another society there is usually the fear that they’ll lose their identity. It is due to the belief that social identity constitutes an essence which must not be diluted with another. However, these barriers get broken sometimes and there are ways to do so. During times of peace, the most prominent way is through marriage, trade or through politics (imposing laws on integration on racial and tribal diversity). In times of tension, barriers are broken through war [domination] or through consensus [mutual respect].

Marriage is one of the main ways in which barriers are broken between tribes and races. It is no doubt that it was forbidden from blacks to get married to white women before 1969. Even till today, it is still considered a taboo. Most Indians don’t marry out of their tribe. In Africa, most tribes prefer to marry within the same tribe or closer ones, although recent mobility of people and means of survival have put these convictions in check.

Trade between people or communities is another means through which a people increase their respectability and interact with others easily. With the increase in purchasing power of the Chinese, many whites find it great to marry a Chinese girl. And unless the purchasing power, defined by trade, of the black community increases considerably, their interaction with other established communities will be seen as a liability.

Many governments interfere to enforce integration of tribes and races. In Cameroon, there is a particular percentage from each major ethnic group to enter into public administration [regional integration quota, presidential decree n° 75/496 of a3th July 1975, decree n° 82/407 of 7th September 1982 and decree n°2000/696/PM of 13 septembre 2000].

In the USA, Executive Order 13583, 18th of August 2011, was signed and aimed at establishing a coordinated government-wide diversity and inclusion in the federal goverment. These regulations might meet challenges in their application but nevertheless illustrate the desire to cross barriers that seem so difficult to break.

Failure to break these barriers could lead to either a stalemate or conflict. That is, two communities which refuse to interact, or which are at war with each other. The multiple conflicts around Africa always have a tribal link and mentioned above.

Identity-Effect Versus Effects of Identity

Identity-effect is a reductionist analysis where every aspect of a person’s life is interpreted either only or mainly in relation to the identity s/he incarnates. It is a position characteristic of those who have reduced their rational faculties to be as narrow as such identity permits.

When Kenyans win in long distance running – like they usually do, arguments are quickly fabricated to show how race and genes are related to their success. No one attributes hard work and perseverance. Admittedly, if whites had won such titles, it could have been said that it is because they are disciplined and hard working. Jon Entine went as far as stating that “runners of west Africa are the fastest humans on earth.” He also referred to Bengt Saltin, the director of the Copenhagen Muscle Institute who said: “an athlete’s environment accounts for no more than 20-25% of athletic ability. The rest comes down to the roll of the genetic dice – with each population group having distinct advantages. In other words, running success is ‘in the genes.’

Here are the facts, athletic achievements, like success of all kind, is a bio-cultural phenomenon.”[cf. The DNA Olympics – Jamaicans win sprinting ‘genetic lottery’ – and why we should all care]. It is the same pattern of arguments that claimed that blacks have low IQ, that they don’t have sufficient intellectual capabilities as others. Conversely, this assertion in 2012 only shows that all the success of the white person is due to some inherent value, an essence which defines his existence. Therefore, only justifiable.

It follows that the identity-effect is not only reductionist but also a symbolic crime because it lays down the conceptual framework upon which injustice and discrimination would be built.

These arguments hold true for tribes as well. When a Luo in Kenya is excellent in medicine or law, he believes it is because they are made to be intelligent, to be scholars contrary to their tribal counterparts, the kikuyus who are business people. Such claims are truer when it comes to the white race who are believed to be intelligent, smart and orderly. When a white person discovers something new, it is seen as a normal achievement but if a person of color does the same it becomes strange. Niel deGrasse Tyson, the renowned New York astrophysicist had explained several times how he was discouraged by his teachers from doing the sciences but to focus on sports like all other black kids. Today, he is known as a great astrophysicist accredited in demoting Plato from the list of nine stars.

The identity-effect creates an enemy in society which then becomes the list of stereotypes lived as the effects of identity. In other words, the effects of identity are resultant acts from assumptions constantly made on people because they look in a particular way or because they are from a given tribe. Consequently, identity-effect and effects of identity are two sides of the same evil.

Humanity, plurality and respectability: At what cost?

With about 3000 tribes in Africa and about four races in the world, it is more evident than ever that plurality is not only the destiny of man but his nature. About 20 million Africans underwent slave trade due to skin color and tribal division, WW I and II lost the lives of about 100 million people. The Jewish genocide and Jewish pogroms cost the lives of at least 10 million Jews before they were finally accepted and respected – to some extent. Given all the division in the world, mostly related to tribe/ethnic group and race, how many more people must be sacrificed in order for humanity to come to the understanding that there is need to be one, and to live in peace, respectfully loving one another?

The contemporary world is vertical and there is more into play than race and tribe notably economy, diplomacy, environment etc. Luckily, humans live in an age where through intelligence and creativity, appropriate measures can be taken to solve the world’s most difficult enigma – division. Regrettably, division appears to be the factor the fuels the pride, happiness and riches of some people.

With all the good laws that have been made, man is left to himself and to his community to design patterns of sustainability that will ensure his survival and respectability in the modern context. The globalization of problems, the mutualization of competences, necessary interdependence of societies and the ultimate democratization of technology shall expose man to himself and to the world on the altar of a new fraternity called civility whose stronghold is the state. And this is not a project of a society, it is a project of humanity; it is its history and destiny.

Has man ever been friendly to fellow man?

When he claims his freedom, the other becomes a subject.

When he canonizes himself as just, the other is demonized as a suspect.

When he assumes he is cultured, the other is marketed as barbarian.

When he decides to believe, the other is stigmatized as a pagan.

When he proclaims himself as civilized, the other is diagnosed as primitive.

When he defines truth, the other is advertised as an imposture, heretic.

When he chooses the vocabulary, the other is decreed as ignorant.

When he defines value, the other is asked to accept existential bankruptcy.

When he defines law, the other is damned as a lawless law breaker.

When he defines beauty, the other’s is mocked as a caricature of aesthetic jargon.

When he defines culture, the other’s is slammed as a useless fabric of no value.

When he defines the exclusive we, the other is marked as the exclusive they.

Has man ever been friendly to fellow man?

[Ultimate wisdom Code I, p. 232]

 

THE BRIDGE OF MISERY: BETWEEN THE PRESIDENCY AND THE CATHEDRAL IN CAMEROON, by Kifon Emile, M.A.

Cameroon-Presidential-palace2

Two important edifices exist in Cameroon which define, to a great extent, the whole sociological architecture of the country – the cathedral and the presidency. The first is found at the center and like the force of gravity pulls all other things around it as a God and keeper of the nation. While the second, found about three miles away, constitutes the concentration of all the political forces that supposedly hold the nation together. But there are not two centers of gravity. In reality, despite the fact that the two operate in theory as separate entities, they constitute a continuum of harmonized inter-dependency linked together by a slippery tangent called control – or in its popular usage, power.

Head of the Black Church

The cathedral, epicenter of the Catholic Church in Cameroon under the Archbishop on Yaounde, sets the tone for religious policy with regards to its relation to the State as well as the population. The presidency, on the other hand, is the heart of politics, residence of the president where he dictates the political climate. By understanding how both structures function, it is possible to know how the country operates. When Yaounde is breathing, Cameroon is alive remains a popular expression demonstrating the paramount role of the nation’s capital.

However, despite the fact that these are important institutions, it should be mentioned that the most important part is what lies between the presidency and the cathedral – the people. Their fate remains suspended and trapped in a system where rules have been displaced from the traditional settings in favor of dubious practices.   So, by illustrating the constitutive nature of power in these structures 1.) It shall be possible to elaborate on how they enhance the exclusion of the people and 2.) It shall be possible to elaborate on how they thereby produce a strange outcome of exchange of competences to the detriment of the public.

  1. Mutually exclusive poles in a mutually constitutive power anatomy

In the preamble of the Constitution of Cameroon 2008, it is specified that “the State shall be circular. The neutrality of the State in respect to all religions shall be guaranteed.” This proviso has become a characteristic of most modern States since their origin of 16th Century divorce from medieval monolithic religious societies, kingdoms and monarchies. With the exception of a few States which are defined essentially by religion [Vatican, Saudi Arabia and to some extent Israel], most modern States, in order to fulfil this post medieval ideal usually define themselves as secular, even when in practice things may not be as simple.

Islam and Christianity are the main monotheistic religions of Cameroon. Nominally, approximately 70% of Cameroonians are Christians, of which about 38% are Catholics, while about 20% are Muslims. Because the Catholic Church is the main centralized religious body in Cameroon, semantically and technically, it is the main body that appears to have some direct and continuous ties with government authorities, at all levels. It should be added that the president, Paul Barthelemy Biya Bi Mvondo, who has been in power for 33 years, is also a catholic. He had been in the Catholic seminary before being dismissed in the early years, of his studies. His father, Etienne Mvondo Assam, was a catechist by profession for the same institution.

Given that the president is a Catholic, it is easy for him to maintain close ties with the main centralized religious organ in Cameroon which would serve him both politically and religiously

But why talk about the religion of the president? Eric Mathias Owona describes the presidential regime as pontifical and in some cases as a principality. In a presidential republic and pontificate State, where the president rules ad vitam, his personal choices resonates a vertical influence over his government as well as a collegial complicity with leaders of the religion of his choice.

The collegial complicity with leaders of religion enables him to exert institutional control over the people through indirect religious hypnosis thereby consolidating the authoritarian democracy. Or, should this be called an authoritarian dictatorship? In principle, the success of assembling, in a deconstructive way, judicial-legislative resources to conform to executive wishes may give the understanding that it is an authoritarian democracy. In practice, however, by taking into consideration that the president governs by decree and exerts tremendous control over all governmental institutions, the regime is more of an authoritarian dictatorship perhaps of a modern style.

As a result, we end up with just the belief that State and religion are separate as stipulated by the constitution. But in practice, they constitute a simple continuum of influence over the population where triggers can be generated either at political or religious levels to produce the same effect.

Divide and rule is a common strategy of control but in an authoritarian system unifying power structures can  be just as effective. But the worst part is when these structures don’t benefit the population they are constitutionally bound to serve.

The-people-of-the-Cameroon-show-respect-to-Pope-Benedict-boston.com_

  1. Dynamics of concerted exclusion of a frustrated populace

Three miles separate from the cathedral is the presidency in the metropolitan city of Yaounde. The cathedral where the archbishop presides his religious ceremonies is technically open but semantically closed. That is, it has just a few physical barriers to deter wanderers but everyone is welcome to enter and pray. One door of the cathedral is usually open, and in most hours of the morning and evening most of the doors are open for other religious services and those who wish to pray to their God: “let the children come to me, for unto these belong the kingdom of heaven” (Mat 19:14).

With a poverty level of almost 40% (2007), most of those who come to Church are around the poverty line. The Church welcomes them with phrases like “blessed are the poor…” and “it is more blessed to give than to receive.” (Acts 20:35). In practice, those who go to Church always hope to please God while thinking that their temporal situation will be made better here on earth. And rightfully so, they pray, offer tithes, and pay dues – which in the archdiocese of Yaoundé was recently increased in order to meet charges that were not properly defined.

Regrettably, a considerable amount of monetary contributions that are made to the Church do not serve the purpose for which it has given. In July 2013, amidst the greatest corruption scandal in recent Cameroon Church history, the Archbishop was forced by the Vatican to resign in the hope of restoring the hope of the people in its failing hierarchy.

In such a complex situation where Christians do not feel that the Church is advancing their welfare, most turn to the State for comfort. It should be mentioned that most of those who come to church have already been discouraged by the strong presidential regime and weak government.  Again, with another disappointment from the Church, they turn to the State and one of the closest structures is the presidency of the Republic.

However, access to the presidency is virtually impossible. Despite its closeness, it is heavily guarded by the GP (Guard Presidentielle) including a big fence. In this case, it is technically closed but semantically open. That is, in theory, the public is made to believe that the authorities of the nation are there for the public, to listen to them and to address their difficulties. But this is far from reality. The president is almost absent from all national life, with only sporadic appearances on national Television to read a speech to a public he doesn’t know. There is a real disconnection between the people and its authorities.

As a result, the little distance which separates the presidency and the Cathedral appears, evidently, to be the nature of what separates the Cameroonian populace from the power structures which need to promote their welfare. Consequently, like rebounds of a non-reward psychological mechanism, the people turn back unto themselves, frustrated, without trust in themselves, nor in the church or in the government. This is evident by the life of duplicity in which most people become attuned: going to church without any intention to be a better person or living in a nation without a desire to serve it honestly. Corruption, as an endemic crisis in Cameroon can be deduced from the mechanism of suspended misery: neither in “God” [Church] nor in the government do they find solace [position 136 on 174 countries, with a score of 27 on 100]. This gets even deeper – citizens grow to lose trust in one another thereby threatening social cohesion and growth. All these are visible in the lane separating the cathedral from the presidency. Despite the fact that both poles concentrate wealth and comfort, this lane is full of jobless people who wander along the streets; others standing on the road side with their tools while hoping to get hired by someone to do a temporary job or those illegally subcontracting government services to citizens who duly deserve them. It is also a lane of insecurity, vulnerability and despair – just the symbol of the country as a whole.

The perpetual rule of the centralized government of Cameroon which is the cause of this social disequilibrium has created another system which has not been sufficiently explored. It is the fact that political power governs with religious authority while religious power rules with political power. It is a strange power structure not before seen in many countries and where the citizens end up – as always – in suspended misery.

  • Sociopolitical exchange of roles: the intercourse between religious and political power

At the heart of social despair is an economic problem rooted in misappropriation of roles both in the religious milieu as well as in the political sector. The classical roles generally attributed to the State do not necessarily hold true for the State of Cameroon nor  for the Church. Below is a table which summarizes how the State governs with religious principles while the Church has been ruling using political strategy.

Religion [epicenter –  cathedral] Politics [epicenter – the presidency]
1. Theology of the present [joy and happiness are hear] 1. Politics of the future [perpetual wait for change in the future]
2. Power is politically charged, elected 2. Power is religious and mystical: “Power comes from above”
3. Faults, errors are sanctioned 3. Corruptions, crimes are pardoned
4. The divine becomes man incarnate 4. Man becomes the divine [perpetual rule]
5. Power decentralized [independent management of dioceses] 5. Power centralized [authoritarian dictatorship]
6. Uses reason, rationality 6. Applies more and more faith, belief and blind truth
7. Motion of disagreement [encourage the good ones to stay and the bad ones to go] 7. Motion of support [support the perpetual ruler to rule even longer]
8. People play the role of citizens, and practice boycott 8. People play the role of ‘faithful’ and in most cases forbidden to strike
9. People learn to claim their rights 9. Political practice is ruled by rites
10. God more and more absent 10. God more and more present
11. Money more and more present 11. Money more and more absent
12. Policy analysts and strategists consulted 12. Prophets, kings and mystiques involved
13. Defined mandates well respected 13. Perpetual mandate
14. Governs by dogma (just belief) 14. Governs by decree (just listen and apply)
15. Leaders forced to resign 15. Leaders made to stay in power ad vitam [gerontocracy]

 

As illustrated in the above, the population has been made to accept inadmissible political practices where the executive leader is vested with an unlimited mandate for the presidency. Like a pontiff, he rules unilaterally over all other institutions which he has crafted to conform to his personal standards. This happens in a context where the archbishop resigned due to accusations of mismanagement of funds or the case of Pope Benedict XVI who resigned from an office which is supposedly made to be held for life. It is not uncommon to find corrupt leaders who get promoted and get rewarded with better appointments in the Biya regime.

Can this scenario explain the social and economic inertia of the country? Certainly, to a great extent. When political mobility is uncertain and religious credibility overthrown, it follows that the economic fluidity experienced by the public under the State of law would be jeopardized and at worst remain in misery.

Unlocking the infinite potentials of a nation cannot be done in a locked governmental system. A system that knows no variability. Neither can it grow in a religious context that has learned to survive with ruse, using political strategies while relegating religious protocols strictly to altar services. If change is the essence of society, then the government is criminal while the Church is complicit in its practice as they exploit a population that is ignorant of its own misery.

IS BARRAK HUSSEIN OBAMA THE ANTI-CHRIST?, by Dwight Hayes, Jr., B.A.

He is just a man

Is Barrack Hussein Obama the Anti-Christ? Can White racism, American Zionism and Politicized Judeao-Christian denominations find yet another moral low to sink to?

I am no Obama supporter. Rather, I strongly lean toward Constitutional Libertarianism and ideologically I am an inclusive separatist or secessionist. 

I also personally lean towards the negation of nonsensical manmade law(s) that do more harm than good. Instead, I am for the re-establishment of God’s laws as the social standard for all secular laws.

However, purely for the purpose of venting, this must be stated because it is undeniably true. Barrack Hussein Obama has drawn disproportionately racially motivated types of negativity and criticism purely because he is “THE” visible Black face in the Whitehouse.

Can anyone reading this recall any other U.S. President being equated with the Anti-Christ and taken out of the presidential context more often than Barrack Hussein Obama?  I’ll wait.  I am willing to bet that if he was behaving like his Democratic predecessor “Sweet Dick Billy” who seemingly has been given a pass for his continued behaviors along with that crooked wife (Hillary Clinton), the world would never hear the end of it and everybody knows it.

I do not recall criticism on “Biblical” proportions of any other President in my lifetime. In fact, did anyone equate President Harry Truman in 1944 to that of the “Anti-Christ” for his approval and first use of two atomic bombs on the mainland populace of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan? No, I don’t recall reading anything nearly that sinister or nefarious about President Truman.

For the greater white Zionist establishment, I guess seeing a black face in “THE” leadership position of “their” country could be equated with the end of the world as they know it or would imagined it to be. 

Other presidents have faced their share of scrutiny and that is unquestionable, but nothing like the scrutiny President Obama has been subject to. Other Presidents have authorized acts of violence worldwide with a deafening roar of approval or often times in complete silence while they themselves were oblivious to the sentiments of the populace at large.

In fact, in 1999 one of the largest bombing campaigns in US military history occurred during the Clinton Administration without U.N. Security Council approval and nobody seems to remember or give a damn about that! It was ironically called operation “Merciful Angel”. This name was later blamed on a “misunderstanding” or a “poor translation” at the hands of the Yugoslavian officials and I have yet to hear even ONE conspiracy aficionado say Boo!

Nearly 85,000 soldiers including 40,000 in and around Kosovo were killed.  In Albania, over 500 civilian deaths including the deaths of Chinese journalists in the Chinese embassy by the U.S. led NATO bombing campaigns during the Clinton Administration. I never once heard a name or an equating of “William Jefferson, Clinton” with that of the Anti-Christ when death was delivered wholesale on his watch under the title operation “Merciful Angel”.

Do you think I’m kidding?  Perhaps you should have lunch with some of my Bosnian and Serbian friends and let them tell you all about it. In fact according to eye witnesses, the “reported” civilian death tolls were much higher than what was actually reported. 

American double and triple standards along with its selective reprimanding of other leaders and governments is sickening both domestically and abroad.  And some proponents have the audacity, “the nerve” even to speak, to wrap themselves in Zionist flags and to speak in nationalist or religious overtones in the name of the Most High God who holds all might and majesty. At the end of the day, it is but a veiled attempt by them to shield their racial prejudices and bigotry. It is a slap in the face to everything Jesus preached and stood for and to all of the prophets that predated him.

 

PATHS THAT LEAD NOWHERE: COMMENTARY ON AFRICANS VS. AFRICAN AMERICANS, by Kifon Emile, M.A.

What Holds it all together

Paths that lead nowhere is a book written by Heidegger in 1962 as an attempt to settle the endless argument on the origin of philosophy. At the time, many people held that philosophy originated in Greece while others believed it originated in Egypt.

Although, as a renowned modern philosopher, he could have taken sides by stating real facts in support of what he believed. However, he understood that, at some point, irrespective of established facts, people will always find arguments to oppose one view from the other. After examining the literature on Africans and African-Americans, it appears without any doubt that there is always an attempt to demonstrate how one is different from the other.

The worst part is that most of this literature tries to show how one is better and how or why the other is either unauthentic, unreliable or primitive etc. And what is true is literature is even truer in real life. Given a closer look, all these dispositions and attempts have been what can equally be called paths that lead nowhere; and rightfully so.

By paths that lead to nowhere, the argument here is not to say that both “cultures” are the same. It is irrelevant to emphasize on that. In the gamut of the myriad aspects on which one differs from the other, there is one point which seems to attract legitimate attention and merits reconsideration – consciousness.

Even when Africans and African Americans agree on a subject, it is believed that we don’t connect at the depth of our subconscious minds as one people (Dr. Steven Nur Ahmed).

However valid this point may sound, it enters into the list of paths that lead nowhere for the reasons set forth. Firstly, it shall be appropriate to ask if Africans as a whole connect with each other at some subconscious level. While each group may understand or sympathize with the practices of others, there is little evidence that the connection is there. Even Africans in the same country, the allegiance that they hold to their various tribes seems to be more important than a national identity.

As proof of this fact, the case of Africans in the United States remains very illustrative. Although being a minority group of immigrants, each group establishes close ties mostly with members of the same tribe or close tribes. In the Cameroonian community, there are French meetings as well as English ones. In the English section, it is divided into different meeting groups according to the various tribes. Despite efforts to establish a unified Anglophone or Cameroonian community that is closely netted together, the process is often a stalemate.

Also, if there is an African subconscious where everyone can connect, how can it be explained that other black Africans are killed and sent out of South Africa for no justifiable reason? Again, this is not simply a South African issue. Similar situations have happened in Angola against Congolese, in Nigeria against Ghanaians, In Cote d’Ivoire against those from Burkina Faso, in Equatorial Guinea against Cameroonians, In Kenya against Somalians, in Congo Brazzaville against Congolese from the Democratic Republic of Congo etc. What is regrettable is that this continues to happen in many parts of Africa on minor scales particularly in Northern Africa against those from the south. The question worth considering here is: how does one seek to establish a subconscious connection with African Americans when he is unable to establish that same connection with fellow Africans? And vice versa.

inter connections

 

Secondly, to understand how to connect subconscious minds of individual people, the simplest way is to be able to establish the content of what is in it. That is, it is easy to say this group doesn’t connect with the other for this abstract reason (be it subconscious). But upon investigating, the idea of subconscious connection is often used as a complex approach to describe the history, sentiments, fears and hopes of a people which have been embedded in their minds over a vast period of times. In other cases, it refers to a set of traditions or practices (values) of a people which enable them identify themselves with each member of the society without necessarily having to understand them individually.

So, in this regard, should we say that the subconscious mind is a fabric that enables us to identify ourselves to each other? Apparently. But this approach doesn’t resist firm critics because many Africans and African Americans have succeeded to establish very good relations with others who are not Africans: whites, Hispanics or Chinese. Regrettably, it should be mentioned that some Africans or African Americans easily connect with whites and others more than fellow blacks. Not only have they said it openly, but they easily develop disgust for things that are related to the party that they decide to oppose. This is nothing new to anyone…

It is this ease in the relations that some blacks develop with others (non-blacks) that it must be emphasized that the idea of connection with each other is not about the differences in our subconscious minds. It resides in something more.

To take a reverse analogy, if you are a very rich African in the USA or African American like Tiger Woods, Michael Jordan, John Legend, Will Smith or Wiz Khaliffa, it would be very easy to gain respectability and connect with whites, Chinese and others – even at a subconscious level. They’ll understand you and you’ll understand them.

Yes, there are differences between cultures and they are real. But there is one thing that connects one people to another – mutual interest. Even the subconscious mind, in most cases, follow the same principle. We refuse to connect with one another because the other is seen as a liability: he does not provide the jobs, he might not have the opportunities that lead to those jobs, he can’t pay my bills, and his presence, ultimately is a threat to the little opportunity that I had in getting a job. Such are the patterns of mental processes which occur not only in the minds of Africans/African Americans, but also Chinese, Hispanics and all others. By stating this fact is not to show that people are greedy. It is simply a perspective of analyzing things – from the Marxist perspective where material conditions considerably determine mental processes.

Paths that lead nowhere is an argument that aims to show that most of the times, we have been investing our intellectual resources in the wrong direction – proving how better or different one is from the other. It also aims to show that we have failed in one fundamental which is demonstrating that the whole world looks at us in the same way and judges us by the same standards. And whether we succeed or fail does not depend on some abstract subconscious idea that most people forge from their unrefined laboratories, but whether we apply the basic principles by which great people live and on which great societies are built: MPH, Meritocracy, Pragmatism and Honesty (Lee Kuan Yew: founding father of Singapore – 1923-2015).

By meritocracy, our destiny depends on cultivating the cult of excellence in anything that we do and promoting those with the highest talent to the positions they deserve. By pragmatism, our success shall depend on investing on things that work. Everything has been invested, all we need to do is learn the best practices and apply them in a way that seem fit for the situation. Applying creativity and smartness. And by being honest, our image shall grow to be more positive, trust shall develop among each other and collaboration, partnerships shall flourish and dignity restored. Any other investment, trying to show that we African Americans are like this or we Africans are like that all lead to nowhere, and the outcome shall be nothing. They only make us more vulnerable.

Lome__Togo

 

In a recent post by Richard Branson featuring the most entrepreneurial countries in the world, Africa took the lead with Uganda at the first place and Cameroon at the fourth position. China was 11th. America and Europe did not feature in the first 15 countries while the least entrepreneurial countries featured japan, France, Sweden, Spain, Luxembourg, India, Ireland, Russia, Finland, Germany etc.

The first developed country to appear on the list was Australia at the 26th position. But there is a difference, most developing countries create business as a means of survival while in developed countries, it is a means of financial freedom. Developed nations, by choosing the best people (meritocracy) to lead them and being pragmatic, they have succeeded in making great companies and systems that would live over a long period of time. But this fact is just a reference that as black people in the world, we have the potential to achieve what others have already achieved.

So, how do you defend the interest of one another? Is is just by being the best you can be: striving for excellence, being pragmatic and honest. If any other theory is established in this document, then it is certainly a path that leads nowhere.

By acquiring these values, you’ll meet people with whom you’ll establish greater ties in order to achieve better things, and as a result, there shall be a subconscious connection between both of you. We cannot expect the best from a group by being the worst of ourselves. There is only one culture that makes sense and that is governance which incarnates itself in meritocracy, pragmatism and honesty. Or in theory form: participation, accountability, sustainability and transparency.

A deliberate attempt has been made not to mention the various ways in which one group views the other, how they are qualified and or how they oppose one another. By mentioning them, it shall be a way of perpetuating them and continuing on paths that lead nowhere.