BLACK HISTORY MONTH: JOHN HENRY WAS A STEEL DRIV’EN MAN

_johnHenry_14 

You’ve heard of John Henry haven’t you? John Henry was a steel driv’en man. He was a manual laborer. He was strong and tough,-a survivor.  Most of us have heard the ballad of John Henry. When pitted against a steam driven drill he was confident he would beat it.  But “…before the machine could beat him down John Henry hammered his fool self to death.” You should listen to the ballad of John Henry.

 

There is a moral to the folk ballad of John Henry which all African Americans and indeed all Americans should comprehend. A book written and published by Sidney M. Wilhelm in 1971 entitled: ‘Who Needs the Negro?’ will facilitate your understanding of the moral behind the ballad of John Henry.

 

Wilhelm’s basic thesis is that: “Negroes may enjoy equality insofar as they are first made economically irrelevant.”[1] African Americans finally achieved political equality under the law but at the same time for the past 50 years have not been cognizant of the fast pace of technological change taking place in the United States.  But this lack of  understanding is not surprising for some since most African Americans are not educated and do not have leadership at the local or national level to warn them of what is coming in the future.

 

What Wilhelm observed is that most African Americans came out of a work tradition of manual labor which required no technical training or expertise.  Three economic epochs define the economic necessity for ‘negro’ labor in the United States. All but one occurred in the 20th century. It is an ongoing tragedy of separation.

 

The first economic epoch was that of preindustrial agricultural labor intensive work or slavery primarily in the South; the second economic epoch was that of sharecropping under Jim Crow segregation in the South. It too was characterized by manual intensive labor.  The third economic epoch was that of unskilled industrial manual labor especially during World Wars I, II, and during the Vietnam war.  In each of those epochs, African American labor can be generally characterized as necessary unskilled ‘manual’ labor.  As such African Americans were wholly dependent upon the context or the where-ness and infrastructure of production or how production would be carried out.

 

Both the context and infrastructure of production began to change for African Americans when after 1945, the mechanical cotton picker and then later the mechanical tobacco harvester were applied to agricultural production in 1965. One of either of those machines could do the work of a 1000 workers in a day. The introduction of farm automation ended the need for manual farm labor in the south. Two things resulted from farm automation. One reality was that African Americans were no longer needed for manual labor in the South.  And two, automation caused the acceleration of a mass migration by African Americans out of a rural context into a city context. For a while the new city context for African Americans gave them respite, but not for long. The infrastructure of production was changing rapidly.

 

Wilhelm observed that as the urban African American population grew by 86% between 1954 and 1966 that parallel to that population growth there was a 50% growth of industrial and mercantile construction outside the core city. The unskilled jobs were taken out of the urban center where African Americans lived. This shift was a national phenomenon. For example it happened in Oakland California. Between 1950 and 1960, 100,000 Whites moved out of Oakland to surrounding suburbs. By the late 1970s manufacturing companies were also moving out of Oakland. It was by design. Not only was there an increase in industrial production outside of city centers but there was also an increase in automation in factories.

 

This brings another problem to the forefront. That problem is the lack of education and more specifically the training of African American youth into the vocations and sciences. The controversy begins at the turn of the 20th century. Then only one man argued that African American youth should be trained to master the trades and vocations. That man was Booker T. Washington.[2] He established the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Alabama. But his idea was opposed by those who argued for liberal arts educational opportunities particularly for children of the talented 10th elite of which W.E.B. Dubois was a member.

 

Booker T. Washington’s idea was also opposed by those who argued for entrepreneurial and Black Nationalists’ agendas. Those two agendas were most aggressively pushed by Marcus Garvey.  Though there is some merit in both Dubois’ and Garvey’s strategies both Dubois’ and Garvey’s proposals, now tried and tested over 100 years, have been proven to be defective means for the social and economic improvement of African Americans.[3]

 

Wilhelm wrote in his book that just when the civil rights laws were enacted by Congress or by a Supreme Court Ruling to insure equal access to public schools and universities the standard for entry into those schools was elevated. For example, prior to 1968 there was no SAT test requirement for application to a University of California. Grade point average was the major criterion. The pattern is clear.  Just as the first wave of baby boomers started graduating from high schools in the mid and late 1960s the SAT test was introduced to eliminate minorities.  That was by design. That same method is now being proposed in 2013-14 to make the GED (General Education Test) test more difficult; that will affect ethnic minority chances to overcome failed high school experiences. More African Americans will fail to pass the test because of the pervasive weakness in mathematics among minorities.

 

By disqualifying African Americans by the use of standardized testing those minorities will be precluded from the training they need to compete for post-industrial jobs. The high school dropout rate for African Americans nationally is over 50% for men and 46% for women. Consequently, there are millions of unqualified African American high school drop-outs.

 

There is yet another problem. It is the problem of leadership or the lack thereof.  Today, civil rights law is not the central issue facing African Americans.  The problem is automation and the inability of millions of African Americans to retool their skills to compete within the post-industrial context. Liberal democrats will not speak in public of the issue while racist extremists and right wing republicans along with Tea Party advocates are pushing aggressively for privatization of Government. People they put before the public are silent on this issue, too. Those misleading public figures make the old argument for civil rights at a time when the law supports civil rights. But anyone who studies U.S. Labor Department Statistics will see the real issue of the day. They will see that there are 73 million unskilled workers in the job market. Of that number 4.5 million are African American. African Americans have the lowest paying jobs and belong to the most unstable families than any other group in the United States. Wilhelm states that African Americans are those who are increasingly ‘unnecessary’ in post-industrial America.

 

What Wilhelm did not see is that a last ditch effort would be made to make the ‘Negro’ economically necessary. First, the unskilled would find a new role as inmates in the prison industrial complex but not to work rather for government to justify increased taxation on citizens to support inmates who sit idle in prison and jail custody and to generate profit for corporate prison enterprises such as ‘Corrections Corporation of America’. Secondly, yet another way to make the Negro economically necessary was not foreseen by Wilhelm. This form of exploitation attaches to AFDC and Welfare income recipients to support small ghetto businesses which depend upon government entitlement money to survive. Here, too, as in the prison industrial complex there is no need for African Americans to be skilled or educated or to do any work at all. Just spend money. Both ghetto businesses and companies like ‘Corrections Corporation of America’ will fight tooth and nail to make the Negro economically necessary for their kinds of businesses. But they have one insurmountable problem and that is the demographic decline of African Americans over the next 46 years. Consequently, the general thesis of Wilhelm remains a cogent one.

 

Robotic technology is increasing at an accelerating pace. Factories and warehouses are employing robots run by computers to do the work that hundreds once did on a single shift. The cost for using robotic technology is cheaper than the cost for human labor.[4] The cost is even cheaper than what is paid to overseas workers. So, though we may see manufacturing return to the United States it will not be to hire unskilled Americans.

 

Unskilled African American workers are in the category of unnecessary. A humungous 72% of all African Americans with college degrees work for some form of Government. They too will be made ‘unnecessary’ because another post-industrial likelihood is the privatization of Governments at all levels. Look at Detroit as a model of a totally financially broke and dysfunctional Government.  Detroit will not be resurrected to it former form. Much of it will be privatized.

 

The United States Post office is another example of the privatization of Government movement. Already, as it stands it is partly privatized. In the years to come, it too will no doubt be completely privatized. Most State and City Governments are teetering on the edge of financial collapse and will seek alternative ways to govern and decrease expenditures due to shrinking tax revenue. Many of them will privatize departments and African Americans though educated will become ‘unnecessary’.  When Army and Naval military bases and hospitals closed in Oakland and Alameda, California during the 1980s and 90s that is exactly what happened. Thousands of African Americans lost their jobs. They too were unskilled for the post-industrial infrastructural changes.

 

Sidney Wilhelm ends his book with a very existential prediction. He states: “Under the economy of past technological configurations, it was incumbent upon White America to balance racial values against economic incentives. But with the introduction of automation, the necessity virtually disappears, since it is economically feasible to negate the traditional rational for the Negro’s existence. …the affected Negroes will not be so much abused as ignored. There will be no necessity to maintain measures of intimidation for purposes of economic returns as the Negro shifts from the economics of exploitation to the economics of uselessness.”[5] Later he states: “It is the double curse flung upon the Negro by White America to judge competency against the performance of a machine and the person by the color of their skin.” [6]

 

John Henry was a steel driv’en man. But John Henry died. His heart just popped wide open. His heart could not take the strain from competing with machines and he could not imagine, manufacture, and produce machines himself. John Henry did not have the foresight to see the age of automation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



[1] Sidney W. Wilhelm, Who Needs The Negro?,  Doubleday & Company, Garden City, New York, 1971, p.p. 265

[2] Booker T. Washington, The Future of The American Negro, 1899, Seashore Classics,

[3] The FBI undermined Marcus Garvey but realistically, it is very doubtful that it would have worked for the masses. For example, Liberia was purchased by President Madison in 1822. It was headed by ex-slaves and Free Blacks. But it became a plantation for American companies like Firestone, Inc. and the Liberian leaders were nothing but brutal dictators over African people.

[4]  60 minutes, Businesses Use More Automation, Fewer Workers, July 21, 2011, by Kelly Cobiella, CBS News

[5] Sidney M. Wilhelm, Who Needs The Negro, Doubleday & Company, Inc., Garden City, New York, 1971, pp. 223

[6] Ibid, pp 265

THE CHALLENGE OF AMERICAN THEOLOGY, by Dr. Steven Nur Ahmed

transendent inspiration

Origen Adamantius was an early Christian theologian.  He was born in 185 A.D. at Alexandria, Egypt. He died in 253 A.D. at the city of Tyre.   His magnum opus is entitled ‘First Principles’.  In it, he outlines a theory of human origin which supports my argument that the Christian theological definition of what a human being is has its roots in both Platonic and Aristotelian anthropological assumptions. That definition of the human soul’s origin is contrary to the Egyptian, Hebraic, and Islamic account of the human soul’s origin out of the ‘dust of the earth’.

Origen’s influence on the direction of Christian thought is substantive and we can see his ideas mirror Hesiod and are in turn mirrored in modern political policy. We can see that even more clearly upon our close examination of his fundamental assumptions about humanity’s origin and social justice.

The first assumption is of course that God exist as pure immaterial ‘thought thinking itself eternally.’[1]  For Origen, this is a given, so we need not dwell at length on it.

His second assumption is that ‘minds’ or ‘archetypes’ participated in ‘God thought’ or what Plato termed the ‘Vision of Beauty’.[2]

The third assumption follows from the second.  That assumption is that because of the soul’s lack of perfection due to its possession of an inherent antithesis to their participation in divine unity, degeneration was triggered which moved souls into a lower status of ‘being and not being’ synchronicity.[3]

According to Origen, some of those lower beings are human souls.  Regarding that he says: “God did not begin to create minds…before the ages [time in the past tense][4] minds were all pure…But there remained some souls who had not sinned so greatly as to become daemons, nor, on the other hand, so very lightly as to become angels.  God therefore made the present world and bound the soul to the body as a punishment.”[5]  We can see from the preceding quote that Origen’s theory is set within the Platonic theological paradigm as a sub-theory resting upon the same assumptions but adapted to Christian mythology.

We can find even more evidence of conformity to Platonic as well as Aristotelian anthropology in the work of Origen. He employs the metaphorical tool derived from Hesiod’s ‘Works and Days’ as used by Plato in the Republic, i.e., the ‘myth of the metals’ to justify not only natural variation among human beings but also to justify on grounds of divine ordination the differing values of human worth based upon ‘sins’ earned in the spirit world: “God, however, who then felt it just to arrange his creation according to merit, gathered the diversities of minds into the harmony of a single world, so as to furnish, as it were, out of these diverse vessels or souls or minds, one house, in which there must be not only vessels of gold and silver, but also of wood and of earth, and some unto honor and some unto dishonor.”[6]

It follows then, that the definition of what a human being is for Origen is predicated upon human nature as a ‘soul’ and that the body is a consequence of spiritual failing: “…each has obtained his degree of dignity in proportion to his own merits…”[7] For Origen a human being is defined from the ‘in-side out’, but under natural conditions Origen finds a graded hierarchy determined by phenotypical differences marking off one person or group from another person or group as more or less approximating the Divinity of God.

 

 

 

 

 



[1] Aristotle, Metaphysics [After Physics]

[2] Plato, Symposium, translated by Benjamin Jowett, William Benton Publisher, 1952, [212]

[3] George Hegel’s theory of Being is similar to this because it too suggests an ‘antithesis’ to Being.

[4] Italics mine

[5] Origen, Origen on First Principles, being Kaetschau’s Text of the De Principiis Translated into English, together with an Introduction and Notes by G.W. Butterworth, LITT.D., Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, Northumberland Avenue,  London, 1936  pp 67

[6] Ibid, pp. 134

[7] Ibid, pp. 71

Welcome to Earth Colony.net: TRICK OR TREAT: WHITE SUPREMACIST TRICKNOLOGY, by Dr. Steven Nur Ahmed

prostitute

White supremacists are getting a face lift; they are having cosmetic surgery. They want to appear young, clean, and fertile. Like a whore, they want to turn tricks with unsuspecting and ignorant men, women, and children. For it is such as they who are the kinds of people they have preyed upon for centuries. They yell out from street curbs everywhere: “10 and 2, ten dollars for the womb and two dollars for the room.”  They give birth to trick baby psychopaths like Joseph Paul Frank.  He drove around murdering people because they did not fit the white supremacist model.

Joseph Paul Franklin

Joseph Paul Franklin

 

Their home grown instinctual insecurities can no longer be adequately rationalized by the centuries old forms of racism and race religion which they institutionalized and practice. This is so because they are now being challenged by the beatific vision; it is the truth. The truth now has them in panic mode; it is driving them into a mad frenzy. They know that their power over and control of the collective conscious is at stake.

 

Their new myth is slowly displacing their old creation myths which were and are based upon the assumption of the polygenetic origin of the different human phenotypes. But don’t be fooled, they are using the same old tricknology. 

sitchin

Zachariah Sitchin

The new myth has its new priestly ideologues.  They have asserted their apostle’s creed that Nordic aliens made the so-called white race. They are many. Zachariah Sitchin[1] (dead), Marshell Klarfeld[2], and Gerald Clark[3] are but a few who are panicking in the dark to find a way to propagandize their new lie.  No doubt some are financed by psychological operations (psyche-opts) connected to government. But they all have a common goal; it is to maintain a psychological advantage over non-European people. 

 

For racism and its priestly ideologues to survive as an institution and to stay in power they must morph their myth. They know that its outward appearance must change. That is so because the basic premises of their old mythological propositions such as that ‘there are races’ and that ‘they each developed independently of each other’ and that ‘some are superior and others inferior based upon skin color and intelligence’ has been disproven by modern genetic science. Their old icons of racial types[4] now lay scattered about on the highway of history like discarded refuse.[5]  

 

Their new story turns on the existence of extra-terrestrial UFO observations made by people all over the world.  Though such observations are a fact and are circumstantial evidence of the existence of UFOs, the ultimate fact is that no other material evidence exists anywhere which can prove any of their theses regarding who or what is riding in or controlling UFOs.   

 

So, they cleverly use what they know are un-definable and vague subjects to support their hypotheses. They use dead languages. They use ancient cave drawings. They use Jewish biblical creation myths. They use Greek polytheistic mythology.  And now they have added to their creed references to ‘Nordic tall blond’ aliens from space.  Now they say it is the Nordic aliens who are the ‘Let Us…’ in the Genesis creation myth.[6] They do that to make a persuasive argument in support of their theses to attract attention in popular race culture.[7]  They preach their sermons from the pulpit of radio shows such as ‘Coast to Coast AM’. 

 

However, therein lay the fallacy. Their various arguments are fallacious at their core. For it is a fundamental law of logic that an argument with a true premise combined with a false premise can only produce a false conclusion even if the form of the argument is valid and even if the premises stack up a mile high.  So, because their premises reek with falsity what they seek are true believers whose irrational insecurities can be manipulated. They want the reigns of irrational power under their control. The history of Europe and the United States has proven that race ideology is irrational and thus it is destructive power.   

 bushmenfamily

THE SAN BUSHMAN

Modern genetic scientists have irrefutably proven that all human beings stem from an 80,000 year old ethnic group called the San Bushman. The San Bushman still lives in South Africa. They are the oldest living human survivors of a planetary super volcanic catastrophe which occurred about 80,000 years ago in Sumatra, Indonesia on what is now called Lake Toba. That catastrophe caused mass extinction of life on our planet.  A few thousand humans survived. 

 

All human ethnic groups carry the ‘Y’ chromosome marker of the San Bushman.[8]  It is passed down unchanged from father to son. Genetic analysis of people all over the world has conclusively proven that all human beings are descendants of Africans out of Western Southern Africa.[9]  It is the ‘San Bushman’ DNA which carry all of the genetic variety we see extent in all human phenotypes in the world.  That includes both dominant and recessive genetic traits.

 

Later, some 2% to 3% of Neanderthal and Denisovan hominid DNA entered the human population DNA.  That genetic inclusion occurred when some Africans migrated over from North Africa into Southern Europe from the Sahara when the Sahara was wet and green. It occurred some 100,000 years ago.[10] Evidence now substantiates that they naturally interbred with Neanderthal Hominids in Europe as well as with Denisovan Hominids in Siberia, Asia, and Pacific Islands.[11] 

 

Don’t be a ‘trick baby’. We should celebrate our common ancestry and work hard to eliminate racism in our society and in the world.

 

 

 

 

 



[1] Zachariah Sitchin, The 12th Planet, Bear & Company, Rochester, Vermont, 1976

[2] Marshell Klarfeld, The Anunnaki Were Here, by Marshell Klarfeld, 2012

[3] Gerald Clark, The Anunnaki of Nibiru: Mankind’s Forgotten Creators, Enslavers, Saviors, and Hidden Architects of the New World, by Gerald Clark, 2013

[4] Johann Blumenbach, On the Natural Variety of Mankind; 1775

[5] Nina Jablonski, Skin: A Natural History, University of California Press, Ltd., 2013

[6] Genesis 1:26-28

[7] Think for a moment. Why would you call an alien from another planet a ‘Nordic’ and named after a geographical place on earth?  Wouldn’t you call the people there after the name of the alien ‘place’ if the alien tampered with their DNA?

[8] Spencer Wells, The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey, Princeton University Press, 2002

[9] Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, The Great Human Diasporas, Basic Books, New York, 1995

[10] There is a 20,000 year hydrologic cycle which makes north Africa a tropical paradise. The cycle was calculated by M. Milankovitch. About 6,000 years ago the dry cycle started and gave rise to ancient Egypt as people moved close to the Nile for water. In about 15,000 years the Sahara will be wet and green again.

[11] See: David Reich ,Harvard University, Harvard Medical School; Discovermagazine.com/2013/march/14-interbreeding-neanderthals

Definition: Tricknology means an unsound or un-cogent argument characterized by a valid logical form but with one or two false premises or un-verifiable subjects or predicates in a proposition or by the intentional use of grammatical errors or by use of some formal fallacious method.

RAGGED AND POOR: THE COLD CALCULUS OF RACIST CAPITALISM

new poor and ragged (4)

Part 2

AFRICAN AMERICANS WERE BLOCKED FROM TECHNICAL INDUSTRIAL JOBS BY U.S. IMMIGRATION POLICY

When the United States was an agricultural economy, African people averaged 21% of the total population.  That lasted up to the beginning of the industrial revolution which started in 1860.  By 1930, the African American population had dropped by over 50% to 9.70% of the total population.[1]  What happened such that the population of African Americans dropped by over 50% in 70 years between 1860 and 1930?  What could the reasons be?

There weren’t any legal contraceptives, no legal abortion, nor was there an imbalanced sex ratio during that time.  So what could have happened during that time?  The only plausible answers are 1) a high infant mortality rate 2) a high maternity death rate, 3) a high mortality rate or a low average life expectancy of under 40 years of age for both men and women, 3) high death rate due to infectious disease, and 4) starvation due to malnutrition.  All of these factors are related to no medical or health care for most African Americans during that period.  Caucasian doctors would not treat African Americans despite their Hippocratic Oath to ‘do no harm’!  African Americans were not allowed service in ‘white’ hospitals. There were virtually no African American medical doctors.  Thus, because free African Americans lost value as slave labor capital they were not worth health care expenditures.

The drop in the percent of African Americans in the total population ran in an opposite direction to the influx of European immigrants into the north at the turn of the 20th century.  Even more significantly, the rise of the Caucasian population paralleled the rise of industrialization and industrial jobs.

Between 1890 and 1910, 12.5 million Europeans were allowed to immigrate to the United States and become citizens.  They were not admitted because they were needed as workers because there were millions of African Americans who were willing and able to work in the new industries.  In fact, Caucasian immigrants were living under deplorable urban conditions and they, too, became exploited laborers. However, some of them benefited by the Homestead Acts which gave to them and their descendants 10% of all U.S. land and thus wealth.[2]  Remember, African Americans were denied 40 acres and a mule. Clearly, the objective was to keep African Americans poor, dependent, and sick.

The facts suggest that industrial corporations and racist immigration policies purposely manipulated the populations of different ethnic groups to buffer elite Caucasians from African Americans living in industrial cities.  Consider these facts.

The demographic dispersion of African Americans spiraled out from the south; 53% remained in the south, 40% migrated north and northeast and 7% migrated to the western states primarily California.  Migrants were pulled by the attractive force of industrial employment opportunities.

Between 1915 and 1970, over 6 million African Americans migrated north and westward for industrial and governmental job opportunities.  Generally, during that time the industrial infrastructure had greater employment capacity than there were job demands on it except for some recessions and depressions.[3]  Keep in mind also that during that time ‘Jim Crow’ segregation became the law of the land.[4] Legal segregation would also be reflected in the industrial work place.

The Unites States was in full industrial throttle between 1860 and 1900.  Correlated with increasing industrialization was a steady process of technological innovation.  The irony is that capital in the form of machines would eventually erode the types of jobs available to African Americans who represented manual labor capital. The logic was incontrovertible; machines could do manual type jobs faster, more efficiently, and cheaper than even lowly paid African Americans.

Today, 20% of African Americans work in the public sector while 76% work in the private sector. Only, 3.8 percent are self-employed.[5]  But even more telling are these statistics:  African Americans are least employed in professional, scientific, technical services (5.9% of total employed), education (10% of total employed) and construction (8.4% of total employed).  These facts underscore the thesis of this article which is that the fate of African Americans is determined by the cold calculus of racist capitalism because these are the fields which drive industry and now the information industries.

The Political Reasons

Another purpose was to insure that ‘whites’ would be plentiful as labor capital (workers) in the growing industries.  That they would have the better industrial jobs, and even more significantly learn and keep under control within their race the higher technical skills used in industries, and of course over generations they would remain a buffer between owners and union members against African Americans.[6] Their children and grand-children would become the middle class of the 20th century.

In the 21st century a similar pattern is clear. The information based economy or service economy which is now dominant in the U.S. is massaging another retooling of the ethnic composition of the United States. Here, Congress, again, is using immigration law as a tool to design our national ethnic composition.

The African American population has been in steep decline since 1972.  That along with a 2013 proposed immigration bill would allow 11 million non-legal aliens legal residency and mushroom the Latino population overnight to over 60 million persons along with a whole new population of illegal aliens.  Such a law would be biased in favor of Latinos as evidenced in the growth of their population over the past 20 years. It will also diminish employment opportunities for African Americans because most African Americans do not speak Spanish and Spanish would become a qualifying factor for most employment selections in the service industries.

 



[1] Black Labor, White Wealth; Claud Anderson, Ed.D; pub. PowerNomics Corporation of America, 1994, pp.168

[2] The Enlarged Homestead Act, 1909; Stock-Raising Homestead Act, 1916;between 1962-1934 the United States gave 1.6 million homesteads or 270,000,000 acres of Federal land for private ownership.  That equaled 10% of all U.S. land.  40% of the applicants succeeded.

[3] Depressions and Recessions:1873;1893;1907;1920-21;1929-1941;1973-75

[4] Plessy v. Ferguson(1896)  7to 1; opinion written by Henry Billings Brown

[5] The African-American Labor Force in the Recovery, United States Department of Labor,2013

[6] Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896

From The Book: A Particular Line of Reasoning, by Dr. Steven Nur Ahmed

Book Cover Earthcolony

15.2

CHARLES DARWIN: FRUIT OF A POISONOUS TREE

For a man who epitomizes in so many ways the very spirit of the modern scientific method by his meticulous natural observations and application of inductive reasoning, Charles Darwin either knowingly or unknowingly welds onto his grand theory of natural selection several theoretical corollaries which fit straight onto the line of reasoning which we have so painstakingly traced from Plato and Aristotle.[1]   His book was entitled: ‘On the Origen of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for life’ (1859’). We are only concerned with those corollary theories which support the thesis of this book and so shall not challenge Darwin’s major theory except to say that it, too, originates within the set of assumptions and methodology laid out by Aristotle.  Simply put, Darwin is an Aristotelian naturalist.  What underlies his theory is the same assumption of proportionate justice or natural law which is central to Aristotle’s theory of nature.

The first evidence to support the thesis that Darwin continues in the line of reasoning we have previously identified is found in ‘The Descent of Man’. Besides giving credence to the concept of ‘race’, he states regarding hominid physical differences that there are corresponding ‘mental’ differences: “The races differ also in constitution,” and “Their mental characteristics are likewise very distinct…partly in their intellectual faculties.”[2] Darwin then takes a major leap far above the bar raised by Plato and Aristotle’s admonition to kill all deformed infants.  He posits the theory of extinction as being a by-product of natural selection, i.e., the fitness or unfitness of a species as measured by their respective number of offspring, competitive success in obtaining material resources, and adaptation to changing environmental conditions. He states the outcome of his natural drama in these words: “At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilized races of man will almost certainly exterminate and replace throughout the world the savage races. At the same time the anthropomorphous apes…will no doubt be exterminated. The break will then be rendered wider, for it will intervene between man in a more civilized state, as we may hope, than the Caucasian, and some ape as low as a baboon, instead of as at the present between the Negro or Australian and the gorilla.”[3]  Here he cleverly states that eventually there will be a greater gap between the highest race and the lowest primate, once Negroes become extinct.

But Darwin also follows closely Aristotle’s evaluation of women.  He parallels closely the comments made by Aristotle in his ‘History of Animals’. Therein he states that women suffer a monthly episode of ‘catamania’[4] Darwin states more categorically that women are intellectually inferior to man and that she is more like the lower races.  He then quotes his cousin Francis Galton: “…if men are capable of a decided pre-eminence over women in many subjects, the average of mental power in man must be above that of women.”[5] As we shall see this is the same application of the normal distribution curve to support the modern theory of inherent intellectual differences between the ‘races’. He concludes by saying: “Thus, man has ultimately become superior to women.”[6] With but a few changes, we may thus peek Darwin’s hidden premise that ‘white men have ultimately become superior to all other races both male and females.’  In fact he says as much.

In his book: ‘The Decent of Man’, Darwin predicts the global genocide of savage races by a superior race.   Once again his central theory of proportionate justice designated by him to be ‘natural selection’ is the ‘invisible hand’ working to adjust survival merit based upon the greater or lesser actualization of survival potential in competing gene pools.  Never mind at this point the fallacious assumption of ‘pure race’ as promulgated by Plato and Aristotle.  Rather, let us remember Plato’s query in ‘the Republic’: ‘How do we make them believe?’ The point here is that the genocidal outcome predicted by Darwin is less the operation of nature and more the product of solicitation and conspiracy.

It is no coincidence that Darwin’s description of nature is so very much analogous with Adam Smith’s central theory of capitalism.[7] Both theorists argue from Aristotle’s natural law theory.  Adam Smith’s interests lie within a far more limited scope of nature; indeed it is an artificial replication of nature revealed through the ‘market place’. But the dynamic interaction of supply and demand nevertheless manifests as the same struggle of the fit which Darwin describes in the natural order.  Deducible from the thesis of both Darwin and Smith is the conclusion that some human groups will be wiped from the face of the earth or the market place, forever.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



[1] Charles Darwin, Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection and the Descent of Man and Selection in relation to Sex, William Benton, Publisher, Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., Great Books, 1952

[2] Ibid

[3] Ibid

[4] Aristotle, History of Animals, [581]

[5] Ibid, Chapter 19; pp 566-567

[6] Ibid

[7] Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, 1776