VARNA MEANS COLOR, By Dr. Steven Nur Ahmed

Aryans_entering_India

The idea of white supremacy has a long history. Five thousand years ago nomadic tribes of south Europeans out of the Caucus Valley region began to move south and finally into north India which was called Palan. When they arrived they came into confrontation with the great Indus Valley Civilization.

The Aryans were pressured by climate change to move out of their habitat. They moved because the great North African monsoon rains which had lasted for 20,000 years had come to an end.

One of the collateral effects of the end of the North African monsoon cycle was that their ancient homeland could no longer support their growing populations because of severe climate change.

One of the Hindu books was written by a man named Manu. In that book the laws governing racial purity were laid down. The superior race of Aryans were called Golden or those of Golden or ‘blonde color’ by the word ‘Su-varna’.

Varna is a Hindi word which means ‘color’. The language of Hindi belongs to the Indo-European language family. It is a term used in the religion of Hinduism to describe the social and economic model of the Hindu religion. It is the most ancient system of white supremacy. It dates back 4,500 years or to 2,500 years B.C.

One assumption of the Hindu religion is that skin color determines whether a person is good or bad and thus their caste status for life. That assumption derives from a myth which tells how the different castes of India were created.

The Hindu Purusha Sukta of the Rig Veda narrates that the first man named Purusha destroyed himself so that a human society based upon hierarchy could be constructed out of his body parts. 

The myth narrates that the high caste called the Brahmans were created from the head of Purush; the K-sha-trias were created from his hands; the Vai-shia were created from his thighs; and the Sudras from his feet. This myth is similar to the Torah myth in the book of Danial when in a dream he saw the various castes of the Kingdom as Gold, Silver, Bronze, and iron mixed with clay. Each denoting a different race caste. 

After many years of war the great Indus Valley Civilization was destroyed and its people enslaved. The original people had lived in Palan or India for over 50,000 years. They were descendants of Black African people who migrated out of Africa more than 70,000 years ago.

Enslaved under Hinduism they were called Sutra or outsider. They came to be the untouchables because the qualities associated with them in the Hindu religion were those of stupidity and lack of creativity as well as carriers of disease, and filth.

One thousand years later the idea of White Supremacy would be expressed through the Greek thinkers Plato and Aristotle. Plato sketched a social hierarchy which he divided into four castes. The castes were based on the idea of race; the Golden, the Silver, the Bronze, and the Iron. He warned against the mixing of the races and argued for racial purity. His racially divided society corresponds to the Hindu caste system outlined by Manu in his book: Manu Smriti.

Plato and Aristotle planted the seed of white supremacy deeply in Europe and the Middle East and over time the idea of white supremacy would grow to become entwined with religious beliefs and anthropology.

You might ask at this time: ‘but what does that have to do with us here in the United States?’ It has much to do with us. That answer to your question leads us to the most important document in the United State. The United States Constitution is what we must turn our attention to now because in it we will find the Varna ideology of White Supremacy.

Article 1, Section 2, Clause 3 of the U.S. Constitution defines a class/caste hierarchy by gender and race. It first defines free persons as those who are citizens. As citizens they are the full beneficiaries of the Bill of Rights. But the definition of who could be a citizen was not without its controversy.

The phrase ‘Free Person’ was identified as being vague and so when congress met it specified who a free person was. The Congress specified that a ‘Free Person’ was a ‘Free White Person’.

But even more specifically only white males could be free because white women could not vote nor if married own property in their name. So, even within the highest caste there was a division by gender giving all political and economic power to white males.

The second group is a caste/class. They were ‘those indentured for a term’. They were contract laborers who sold themselves out to do work for payment for passage from Europe to the newly founded United States.

Once an indentured servant completed their contractual obligation they were free to apply for and be granted citizenship as long as they could prove that they were white.

The third caste identified ‘those not taxed’ were Native Americans. They at that time were recognized as sovereign nations and thus outside the scope of rights and privileges granted by the Bill of Rights.

The last and bottom caste is that of ‘3/5ths all others’. That famous phrase refers to African slaves who were then defined as chattel property. As such African slaves had no constitutional rights, nor human rights which a white man had to recognize. That idea was expressed by Thomas Jefferson.

No doubt Thomas Jefferson was influenced by the Varna ideology when he wrote his only book, Notes on the State of Virginia-Query 14. In that book his description of African people corresponds exactly to that given in the book of Manu and the role of the ‘untouchable’ black people of India.

The hierarchy which I have described from the U.S. Constitution overlaps perfectly with the Varna caste system defined in the Book of Manu which governs Hinduism to this day.

The fact that the color caste system established 4,500 years ago by the Aryan tribes in the Indus Valley and long before the Christian era and over two thousand years before the advent of Islam proves that the ideology of white supremacy is a global movement equivalent in nature to a religion which demands in its dogma the belief in the superiority of the white race and the inferiority of Black people and all other people of ‘color’ wherever they may be found.

Another unavoidable conclusion is that every post-Christian and Arab cultural institution was influenced more or less by the race caste ideology of Hindu White Supremacy. Thus global enslavement and economic exploitation based on skin color emanated from the centers of Europe and the Middle East.

Today, we face the problem that no Black labor is needed in the United States. I mean that in the absolute sense.  Yes, influence peddlers will continue to hustle votes for either the Democratic or the Republican parties. But the fact is that African Americans are in more danger now than they were during the era of chattel slavery.

 I say that because even though white supremacists don’t need to exploit Black labor it does not necessarily follow that racism or white supremacy will go away. It won’t go away because even though the idea of white supremacy is no longer used as a rationalization to economically exploit Black people, White Supremacy is a religion or a belief system passed down from generation to generation  and which is now integral to Western Culture everywhere. 

I will leave you with this quote from a forward by Staughton Lynd in the book: Who Needs the Negro? He wrote: “…if the white American no longer needed the black American’s labor, he might feel free to express his racism fully; not merely to exploit the black Americans, as in the past 300 years, but to kill him.”

I recommend that you research the domestic demographic statistics on African Americans and add to that Labor Department annual reports. You do the math. You draw your own conclusion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

FROM THE BOOK: THE SYLLABUS OF MALCOLM X, by Dr. Steven Nur Ahmed

Malcolm X

FREEDOM BY NEGATION

Bimbi operated a machine that stamped a different identification number onto each license plate that rolled down the conveyer belt in the prison factory. Each number was unique even though it was stamped upon the same kind of state plate. Eventually, each number would come to be identified with the characteristics of a car and its owner.

Day after day, as he worked on the conveyer belt line Malcolm would listen to Bimbi. He would wonder to himself about the strange man speaking on “odd subjects.” He was awed by what he described as Bimbi’s mastery of words and the total respect his intelligence commanded from everyone.

The conveyer belt would stop sometimes. Then inmates and even guards would gather around Bimbi’s dimly lighted station. Each would listen intently to Bimbi to discern the words and statements he expressed to them.

Malcolm would listen attentively, too. He watched as others put focused attention upon Bimbi. But while watching he came to understand that each man perceived Bimbi’s speech differently. Though each word Bimbi uttered made identical percussions upon their ears, those same discrete sounds when strung together into statements and then set down side by side to each other became step planks, or were like fine tones fleeing the constraints of their bars and notes. One after the other they would spiral upward to a dizzying height and took each listener on a different trip far away from prison.  Was this simply music he heard? Or was it what thought is?

But Malcolm wondered how could this be? How could Bimbi speak to all and yet at the same time to each man each of whom spoke a different dialect? It was like seeing a bright beam of light refracted through a prism into countless colors. Each color suited to the particular mind it penetrated. Bimbi then turned and looked at Malcolm face to face and spoke to him. He spoke to Malcolm the atheist. Bug-eyed, Malcolm listened.

Bimbi was free in his speech. This was so even though his free speech flowed forth and out of a sequestered body. But there, in prison, it was a true paradox for this man to be so free in his speech yet bound and gagged by society.  Yet, it was not an incomprehensible paradox for it was because Bimbi’s mind was free. Thus what gave his words freedom of flight were the fine unfettered logical threads which wove them together in a mind undaunted by incarceration.  His was a mind in negation. Malcolm must have pondered whether negation was that mysterious power in the mind which like some kind of dark energy levitates consciousness beyond its natural context? A mind in negation is what makes a person free.

There was such clarity of meaning and graphic imagery incased in each sound.  But Bimbi was not religious. He was not a Pagan, a Christian, a Muslim, a Jew, a Buddhist, a Hindu, or an animist. But neither is God religious. God does not pray; God does not seek himself in the confines of a building; God does not do ritual; in fact God is unlisted. But given all that God is not, God is freedom and so too was Bimbi free.  And in that unspoken relation of negation and freedom there was an odd relation to that which Bimbi had.

Malcolm wanted to be free too and if there was a way out of the box he wanted out. He understood that it would have to be by negation not affirmation. He thought then and there that it had to be the way to freedom expounded upon by Bimbi. Malcolm knew that if he could be free there in prison then he could be truly free everywhere and at all times.

Every person is inherently rational and perceives through the agency of their mind and by the exercise of some degree of reason what reality is not.  The problem of knowledge is to eliminate perception and in so doing disappear false assumptions and the shallow frivolous thoughts out of which our perceptions are born. We can see reality as it is in itself by negation so that we can be propelled into the depths of our mind to affirm our true self. That is difficult to do for many reasons. For example, within the context of our human life, we perceive God as a problem to be solved. But what if God is not contextual?  If that be so, then it is not God that is the problem; so, the problem is us.

 

 

IT’S THEIR DEMEANOR, STUPID, by Dr. Steven Nur Ahmed

ec sagging pants

I was born in Oakland, CA. Except for a year in Chicago, Illinois, and a year in Mississippi where I did not attend school, I went to schools in Oakland.
Like many baby boomers, sometimes I become nostalgic and I yearn to see old neighborhoods which remind me of early life experiences and childhood friends. So, one morning I decided to spent a morning driving around Oakland. My parents graduated from McClymonds High School in the 1940s, so I started there in West Oakland.

I drove through many of my old neighborhoods. I saw the places where my family had lived. I drove from 12th and Peralta in west Oakland; around down town, around Lake Merritt to Durant street in East Oakland and then into Sobrante Park below what was once called East 14th street but which is now called International Blvd. That area has long been referred to by many as the flats.

In so many ways Oakland is not the same city. But I understand that cities change. I understand that the character of a city is not itched in stone. I understand that cities are driven like individuals to adapt to new ways of doing things; of new ways of making a living which makes it able to get at the things it needs to thrive.

As I drove it was impossible for me not to compare and contrast the many aspects of old neighborhoods and the people who live in them now with those who lived in my youth.

Poor money circulation, like poor blood circulation in the body will cause body parts to rot and die, causes neighborhoods to rot and die. Gradually, my nostalgia gave way to a deep sadness. I saw that a once bustling industrial hub in West Oakland and running from Fruitvale Avenue to 105th avenue and some parts of Brookville Village through San Leandro Blvd. was gone. I reminisced on the many entry level industrial jobs which were available for me my relatives and friends when we graduated from high school and which gave to us employment without a degree and which trained us on the job.

I also noticed hundreds of empty dilapidated small business spaces along a once thriving international Blvd. extending through East Oakland past Havenscourt Blvd. to 105th avenue.

I realized that today those job opportunities no longer exist for thousands of Oakland citizens living along the old industrial hub of the city. I understand that those industries are never coming back. I understand that there is a different kind of poverty in Oakland now than what was there when I was a child. It is a kind of permanent material poverty for too large a percentage of the population. It is a kind of poverty without hope.

I can reflect back now and understand that the economic decline of Oakland began in the 1950s. That its decline was in part a racist reaction to the mass migration of African Americans into the city at about that time. Most African Americans lived in the auditorium projects which occupied the land upon which now sits Jack London Square and the immediately surrounding area west of the 880 freeway.

I learned that 100,000 Caucasians fled the city out of fear of African Americans within 10 years and that gradually, over the next 20 years, the large industries followed them. From West Oakland to Durant Street at the old General Motors plant in East Oakland, both of those groups took money with them causing the city tax revenue stream to evaporate.

Eventually by the mid 1990s, thousands of government jobs had been lost because the Army and Naval bases closed and so the two largest employers of women and African American women in particular were gone, too.

That meant even less revenue for the City of Oakland because besides the incomes lost by families, small businesses were unable to survive with such a massive loss of surplus cash flow in the city. I went to the East-Mont Mall on 73rd avenue and Bancroft.

I was at the mall when it opened in 1970. At that time it had upper scale small retailers and major retailers. But today it is like a marker showing how low the money tide has fallen. It is a dead mall. Like a pool with no water in it, the stains of higher water levels forever etched on its sides are symbols of better times in the past.

Oakland Unified Schools District and Oakland Parks and Recreation suffered economic setbacks, too. For as long as I attended schools OUSD and OPR worked in conjunction to provide after school and summer on campus recreational activities for children in the neighborhoods. That included summer camp. By the mid 70s the schools started to show signs of infrastructural decay and slowly Oakland could no longer afford to hire college students who served as the after school recreational directors. The losers were the children.

Though the economy was shrinking the populations was remaining constant. The demand for jobs and for opportunities was not shrinking with the industrial base of the city and the city tax revenue. People were operating on what Oakland was and not what it was becoming.

As I drove, my attention then changed to the demeanor of the people. A people’s demeanor is in many ways an expression of culture in the broadest sense of the word. I understand cultures change. They usually change in relation to religious novations and/or technological development. But neither of these aspects of culture had met those two conditions.

In Oakland, religious institutions are set within the same 3000 year old paradigms. African Americans are still trying to make themselves into Jews or some form of Roman Christian or going back to ancient Egypt or some other brand of Middle Eastern or Asian dogma. They do not have the foresight to see that they are running head long into profound and mind altering scientific discoveries as well as a new spiritual paradigm which have already started to change the general mindscape of humanity to newer and higher levels of consciousness. They are on the losing end of the stick and there is no way to help them out of their self imposed crypt.

Also, as I stated above, industries have left the city, so no industrial innovations have taken the place of the old ones. So, I mused: what has caused a change in the demeanor of the people?

I narrowed it down to several factors. I identified drugs, media, and state prison. I identified drugs because I remember Oakland before cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine use had been popularized. That was prior to 1966.
Slowly, I saw the use of those three drugs spread to youthful segments of the population which were not part of the criminal ‘fast life’, especially women. They were promoted as recreational drugs.

I noticed that the increase in the use of those drugs opened up a multimillion dollar pipeline flowing out of neighborhoods all over the city. Addiction to those drugs and the further economic impoverishment of families marked a significant change in the demeanor of the people. Generally, people started to look ragged and unclean in their personal appearance. Even more, they seemed not to care. Then I noticed a sharp increase in the incarceration rate and prison construction in California.

The war on drugs was rebooted under the Nixon administration in 1970. It was associated with the prison construction boom in California and the arrest and incarceration rates of large numbers of people in Oakland for mostly petty drug offences. The war on drugs also increased the number of people who chose careers in corrections as correctional officers as well as it resulting in a state private contract boom which awarded billions of state tax dollars to private corporations to build, maintain, and supply state prisons. Oakland’s minority populations were hit the hardest by the war on drugs. Their arrest and incarceration numbers increased year by year as the feedback loop between Oakland and the state prison system became stronger and stronger.

So I did find that industrial innovation was driving cultural change. But it wasn’t making the kind of useful products one normally thinks of; products which grow wealth in a community. It was the prison industry. It was making people into useless entities as it took them in for its raw material by the hundreds of thousands as though Oakland was a colonial plantation or as a parasitical leech sucks the blood out of a weakened helpless creature. Its effect would be and is a total change in the demeanor of the people reflecting prison life but now rooted in neighborhoods.

gay men at morehouse ec

This I noticed is most reflected in the young men. Their pants pulled down low under the buttocks; their unkempt appearance; their low education level; their imprecise speech patterns; and, their unemployment because of having a felony record or just simply not wanting to work at a low paying job is just the surface of a deeply rooted prison ethos that now plagues the city of Oakland. It is a moral disaster zone.

As I drove around with my window down I could hear music blasting from cars to my left and right. I reflected on two stations which from the 1940s up to the 1980s thrived in Oakland. KDIA and KSOL radio stations played to a base of African American listeners. Blues, jazz, and soul music was what I heard. On Sundays, I’d hear programs which aimed at enriching the listeners with news, philosophy, history, art, religion, and an opportunity to call in and express public opinion.

That has all changed now. Those stations are off the air. There are no African American radio stations, but there is a media which promotes a kind of music which does generate for it billions of dollars in profits each year although none of that money finds its way back into Oakland communities. Additionally, the music is generally negative for the sake of being negative. The lyrics include words such as nigger, bitch, etc. Children know the lyrics by memory. Parents play it in the home and sing along with their children. It is a comprehensive media brainwashing tactic which has brought about such a change in the psychological demeanor of the people that it is now impossible to reverse it.

The Hip-hop/Rap media growth is directly correlated with increase in cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine use, the rise of the prison industrial complex and their combined effect upon the psychological demeanor of the people. I finally thought, wow, yet another way to siphon money from poor people and to keep them physically weak and psychologically down at the same time. It is the physical control of the mind by drugs plus by sound plus by words plus by isolation plus by time.

In fact when I think about it it’s as though whole neighborhoods have been converted from rational people to a complex of instinctual impulses triggered on queue by all the stimuli set up around them; sound, sugar, salt, fat, denigrating words, self loathing styles, etc, like Ivan Pavlov’s famous dog experiment was able to trigger the dog’s brain to foam at the mouth by the sound of a bell.

I realized then that the most pressing issue in Oakland is no longer ‘civil rights’ it’s ‘clearing the mind’ because if you ‘clear the mind’ civil rights will follow.

I decided to stop my tour of Oakland. I had had enough. Honestly, it was making me sick. Maybe I’ll do another tour some other day when I’m feeling better and nostalgic again.

Misogyny and Sexism, by Dr. Steven Nur Ahmed

Book Cover Earthcolony

Chapter 4.1

Though the thesis of this book is limited in scope to that of the origin of modern racism in ancient mythology and classical philosophy, it is necessary to examine a line of reasoning that runs parallel to that of racism and is also rooted in the Torah creation mythology as well as it being rooted in Aristotle’s theory of gender differences. To examine those sources is important.  It is important for the same reasons we stated concerning institutionalized racism; that is because it, too, continues to have deep and widespread influence on the status and roles of women and the behavioral responses to women in both the western and middle-eastern worlds.  It is misogyny (hatred of women).

We have spent some time examining the ‘Genesis’ creation problem.  First it is a myth or a fictitious account of the origin of Homo-Sapiens, but though the subjects are false it is argued logically by some persons even though they have no evidence to support it as fact.  Furthermore, the creation myth presented in the Torah is inconsistent because there are two accounts of the creation of the first man and the first women.[1]  According to Friedman, those accounts were written by different persons at different times.  In chapter one, the male and female were created simultaneously: “…male and female created he them.”[2]  In chapter two of the same book, there is yet another account of the creation man and women.  This time the writer states that the first man and first women were created serially (one after the other).[3]  The fact that the two accounts are mythological does not prevent us from scrutinizing them from a sociological perspective because what we want to know is whether or not such myths are determinative in the formation of socio-economic inequality between men and women in our society today.

The woman, Eve, is made to be culpable for the fall from grace.  Her culpability is central to our analysis of the institutionalization of misogyny (hatred of women) in modern society.  Without doing a detailed analysis, let us summarize the Genesis narration. First, the woman was approached by ‘the serpent’; secondly, she took the fruit and ate it; thirdly, she was blamed by the man for having mislead him; fourthly; God blamed her for having committed an unlawful act; fifthly, the woman’s sorrows are multiplied by God including her conception and pregnancy; God further makes her subordinate to her man stating that: “…he shall rule over thee.”[4] The status and roles of women in Jewish culture conformed more or less to the expressed and implied definition of the first woman, Eve, in the creation myth.  From there and through cultural diffusion, that myth began its slow but steady progression in Europe and the middle-east through Christianity.

One very influential conduit of the myth of the divinely ordained subordination of women was written in 1486 by two Dominican Monks named Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger.[5]  The thesis of their book is that Satan exist and that through human agency good person are seduced to evil.  The book defines the procedures for carrying out torture upon suspected witches.  We will not survey the entire work. For our purposes there are several sections which parallel the Genesis curse upon women and has become institutionalized in the Western world.

Let us first cite some quotations from the book and then analyze them. First in part 1 question 6 it states: “For learned men propound this reason; that there are three things in nature, the tongue, an ecclesiastic, and a woman which know no moderation in goodness or vice…”; “What else is woman but a foe to friendship, an un-escapable punishment, a necessary evil, a natural temptation, a desirable detriment, an evil of nature, painted with fair colors.” And, “When a woman thinks alone she thinks evil.”;“…women are naturally more impressionable, and more ready to receive the influence of a disembodied spirit;…”; “Women are intellectually children.”; “She is more carnal than a man as is clear from her many carnal abominations.”; “And, it should be noted that there was a defect in the formation of the first women, since she was formed from a bent rib, that is, a rib of the breast, which is bent as it were in a contrary direction to a man. And since through this defect she is an imperfect animal, she always deceives.”[6]  These quotes, if believed, can compel the inference that women are defective, intellectually stunted, and distrustful.  Over time, such premises grow misogyny or hatred of women in both men and women.

The book concludes that torture is the only means by which such women can be cured of their predisposition to evil.  Here the point being made is that beating ‘evil’ women is for their own good and the good of the community.  Little wonder that well into the colonial period of American history wife beating was sanctioned at common law as a method of correction. This is evidenced by a statement by William Blackstone that it was an ancient custom which was generally accepted which permitted men to moderately chastise their wives as they would their servants or children.[7]

The Catholic Church was a major player in the establishment of the modern European western nations. Its cannon law influenced the development of secular legal institutions.  It laid the cultural foundation which gives to those nations a common identity and if not a contemporary identity then at least a historical one.  The moral values it established between the 4th and 16th centuries became institutionalized and thus came to be accepted as truth without question for many year into the 20th century.  It developed the themes set forth in the book of Genesis that women necessarily occupy a lower status and subservient roles to men and that the line differentiating the two genders must be maintained by force if necessary. Yet, there is another argument for female inferiority which originates in systematic philosophy.  To understand that argument we must turn to Greek philosophy in the 4th century B.C.

A non-Judeo-Christian element which buttressed and reinforced the creation myth in the Torah was present in Greek philosophy.  If we accept Friedman’s theory, then both the origin of Torah mythology and Platonic/Aristotelian gender views were contemporaneous in time. In the Greek philosophies, we find the first attempt to systematically present a theory supported more or less by objective evidence that women are inferior to men.  Of course, the evidence is ‘physical’ and we need only look to Aristotle to find the first inkling of what would in time be morphed into a full blown scientifically determined argument for the inferiority of women.

Now, let’s identify some of Aristotle’s theses regarding the natural and social status of women and the premises in support of those theses:  “…for the male is by nature better fitted to command than the female…”[8]; “…the one is the courage of command, and the other that of subordination…”[9]; and, lastly, “For the free rules the slave, the male the female…”[10] Here is a simple sketch of gender hierarchy. Note that it parallels the Torah myth of the curse put open women: “…and thy [your] desire shall be to thy [your] husband, and he shall rule over thee [you].”[11]  What differs between Aristotle’s argument for the inferiority of women and the Genesis myth is that Aristotle ‘supports’ his theses with physical evidence.  However, they both come together in the same conclusion that a woman’s status and her roles in society are inferior to that of man by law of nature or necessity.  It can never be changed.

The physical evidence which Aristotle posits is laid out in his book: ‘History of Animals’.  Therein he lays out a biological function which relegates women to the lower tier of gender relations.  He regards menstruation as an ‘ailment’ in women. He calls it ‘catamenia’. The Greek word ‘cata’ means ‘thrown’ and ‘menia’ means menses or moon.  Aristotle’s argument for female inferiority is more cogent because he correlates a physical condition to the phases of the moon.  It is a simple model implying basic assumptions about women which will be used by modern naturalists and anthropologists to rationalize women’s less esteemed status and roles in modern society.

One modern scientist who makes a claim for female inferiority is Charles Darwin.  He states that women are analogous to lower races in that they are more emotional than intellectual. The superiority is the product of a higher intellect in man with corresponding less emotional orientation than what is in woman.  Thus, for Darwin there is a physical basis for the qualitative difference between men and women.  In fact, he says regarding woman’s intuition, imitation, and rapid perception that “…these faculties are characteristic of the lower races, and therefore of a past and lower state of civilization.”[12]  Darwin goes one step farther in his argument for a physical basis underlying woman’s inferiority to man.  Rather than resting his theory on ‘menses’ alone he joins with it specific neurological functions that are supportive of intellectual abstraction but in and of themselves are less than the intellectual power of abstraction.  He may now deduce as though following of necessity the claim: “Thus, man has ultimately become superior to women.”[13]  The political, scientific, and religious foundation for institutionalized sexism was thus established upon the basis of myth, political injustice, and pseudo science.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



[1] Richard Elliot Friedman, Who Wrote the Bible, San Francisco, Harper, 1987

[2] Genesis, 1:27

[3] Genesis, 2:7; 2:18-23

[4] Genesis, Chapter 3:16

[5] Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger, Malleus Maleficarum, Malleus Maleficarum; The Witches Hammer, translated by Rev. Montague Summers, 1486

[6] Ibid, part 1, question 6

[7] Sir William Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England, 1765

[8] Aristotle, Politics  [BookI. 1259a1-2]]

[9] Ibid, [BookI. 1260a8]]

[10] Ibid, [BookI. v.5-8]

[11] Genesis 3:16

[12] Ibid

[13] Charles Darwin, Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection and the Descent of Man and Selection in relation to Sex,  Chapter 19,  pp. 566-567, Published by William Benton, Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., Great Books, 1952